I was like one who never casts a look behind, who hesitates before some Rubicon to be crossed, but having touched the farther bank sees no more the shore he has just left."
By September he had crossed the Rubicon, Henry Newman (his rector at Shepton Beauchamp and Sparkford) accompanying him on a tour in Carnarvonshire.
RUBICON, a small stream of ancient Italy, which flowed into the Adriatic between Ariminum and Caesena, and formed the boundary between Italy and the province of Cisalpine Gaul.
The historic importance of this event gave rise to the phrase "crossing the Rubicon" for a step which definitely commits a person to a given course of action.
In 90 B.C. it acquired Roman citizenship, but in 82 B.C. having been held by the partisans of Marius, it was plundered by those of Sulla (who probably made the Rubicon the frontier of Italy instead of the Aesis), and a military colony settled there.
It was adopted by Augustus as the boundary of Gallia Cispadana; the far-famed Rubicon was a trifling stream a few miles farther north, now called Fiumicino.
As such it was assigned to Julius Caesar, together with Transalpine Gaul, and it was not till he crossed the Rubicon that he entered Italy in the strict sense of the term.
It was separated from Etruria and Umbria by the main chain of the Apennines; and the river Ariminus was substituted for the far-famed Rubicon as its limit on the Adriatic.
See Kersaint's own works, Le Bon Sens (1789); the Rubicon (1789); Considerations sur la force publique et l'institution des gardes nationales (1789); Lettre a Mirabeau (1791); Moyens presentes a l'Assemblee nationale pour retablir la paix et l'ordre dans les colonies; also E.
Caesar occupied it, however, as a strong position after crossing the Rubicon; and it received a Roman colony, perhaps under the triumvirs, and became a place of some importance.
His first task was the re-establishment of a regular and constitutional government, such as had not existed since Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon twenty years before.
His first efforts in the Prospects on the Rubicon (1787) were directed against Pitt's war policy, and towards securing friendly relations with France.
It was separate from Italy proper, the Aesis first and then the Rubicon being the boundary on the east, and the Arnus the boundary on the west, so that, for example, Luca remained outside the boundaries of Italy proper, even in 89 B.C. Romanization had, however, progressed considerably, the foundation of colonies and the construction of roads had gone on during the 2nd century, and the whole district as far as the Padus was given the Roman franchise in 89 B.C., while the Transpadanes received Latin rights, and were fully enfranchised forty years later.
The Rubicon was crossed on that day: Bonapartes march to empire began with the constitution of the year X.
The Ronco (Bedesis) and Montone (Utis), which flow into the sea together east of Ravenna, were also tributaries of the Po; and the Savio (Sapis) and the Rubicon seem to be the only streams from this side of the Tuscan Apennines that ran directly into the sea in Roman days.
The transition from the medieval to the modern order was now secured if not accomplished, and a Rubicon had been crossed from which no retrogression to the past was possible.
But all attempts at negotiation failed, and in January 49 B.C., martial law having been proclaimed on the proposal of the consuls, the tribunes Antony and Cassius fled to Caesar, who crossed the Rubicon (the frontier of Italy) with a single legion, exclaiming "Alea jacta est."