The arrangement of the numbers on the rods will be evident from fig.
In 1623 Ursinus published Rhabdologia Neperiana at Berlin, and the rods or bones were described in several other works.
With respect to the calculating rods, he mentions in the dedication that they had already found so much favour as to be almost in common use, and even to have been carried to foreign countries; and that he has been advised to publish his little work relating to their mechanism and use, lest they should be put forth in some one else's name.
The figures as written down are 12510 6255 14595 1534560 Napier's rods or bones consist of ten oblong pieces of wood or other material with square ends.
The set of ten rods is thus equivalent to four sets of slips as described above, and by their means we may multiply every number less than II,irr, and also any number (consisting of course FIG.
Of course two sets of rods may be used, and by their means we may multiply every number less than 111,111,111 and so on.
Besides the logarithms and the calculating rods or bones, Napier's name is attached to certain rules and formulae in spherical trigonometry.
This simple form of crane thus embodies the essential elements of foundation, post, framework, jib, tie-rods and gearing.
A and A' carry two light vertical rods S, M, the one as much in front of the other as there is space between two successive holes in the perforated ribbon.
To the other ends of A, A', rods H, H' are loosely hinged, their ends passing loosely through holes in the end of the bar L.
In the red variety of Cucurbita pepo these crystals may consist of rods, thin plates, flat ribbons or spirals.
6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.
In the retina the cones prevail in numbers over the rods, as in the mammals, and their tips contain, as in other Sauropsida, coloured drops of oil, mostly red or yellow.
A highand low-pressure cylinder are cast together, and the piston-rods belonging to them are both coupled to one cross-head which is connected to the driving-wheels, these again being coupled to other wheels in the usual way.
In this engine the two piston-rods of one side are not coupled to a common cross-head, but drive on separate cranks at an angle of 180°, the pair of 180° cranks on each side being placed at right angles.
The advantages claimed for it are: short coupling-rods, large and unlimited fire-box carried by a trailing axle, compactness, and great power for a given weight.
It has many advantages for heavy high-speed service, namely, large and well-proportioned boiler, practically unlimited grate area, fire-box of favourable proportions for firing, fairly low centre of gravity, short coupling-rods, and, finally, a combination of the safe and smooth riding qualities of the fourcoupled bogie type, with great steaming capacity and moderate axle loads.
The frame is crossed by four metal horizontal rods passing through holes large enough to allow them to rattle when the sistrum is shaken, the rods being prevented from slipping out altogether by little metal stops in the shape of a leaf; sometimes metal rings are threaded over the rods to increase the jingling.
These consist of fine rods suspended between two points of the cuticle, and connected with nerve-fibres; they are known as chordotonal organs.
The fishing tools are generally attached to the cable, and are used with portions of the ordinary string of tools, but some are fitted to pump-rods or tubing, and others to special rods.
The principle of this system consists essentially in the use of rotating hollow drilling rods or casing, to which is attached the drilling-bit and through which a continuous stream of water, under a pressure of 40 to loo lb.
The sucker is connected by a string of sucker-rods with the walkingbeam.
The use of slender wooden boring-rods instead of a cable.
The system usually adopted is a modification of the Canadian system already described, the boring rods being, however, of iron instead of wood, but the cable system has also to some extent been used.
This aggressive character has a different aspect in several genera which are destitute of a central stylet, but in which the surface that is turned outwards upon eversion of the proboscis is largely pro- P. vided with nematocysts, sending the urticating rods of different sizes in all directions.
The more highly organized species have often very numerous eyes (Amphiporus, Drepanophorus), which are provided with a spherical refracting anterior portion, with a cellular " vitreous body," with a layer of delicate radially arranged rods, with an outer sheath of dark pigment, and with a separate nerve-twig each, springing from a common or double pair of branches which leave the brain as n.
Phioxus; (c) the skeletal rods in the tongue-bars of Balanoglossus are double; (d) the tongue-bar in Balanoglossus does not fuse with the ventral border of the cleft, but ends freely below, thus producing a continuous U-shaped cleft.
(35) Du Bois has shown that _when the dimensional ratio in (= length/ diameter) exceeds t00, Nm 2 =constant=45, and hence for long thin rods N = 45/ m2.
(36) From an analysis of a number of experiments made with rods of different dimensions H.
These, together with values of nt 2 N for cylindrical rods, and of N and m 2 N for ellipsoids of revolution, are given in the following useful table (loc. cit.
For experiments with long thin rods or wires it has an advantage over the other arrangements in that the position of the poles need not be known with great accuracy, a small upward or downward displacement having little effect upon the magnetometer deflection.
An iron bar shaped like an inverted L projects upwards from each of the yokes, the horizontal portions of the bars being parallel to the rods, and nearly meeting at a height of about 8 in.
If, however, the permeability of the test rod differs from that of the standard, the number of lines of induction flowing in opposite directions through the two rods will differ, and the excess will flow from one yoke to the other, partly through the air, and partly along the path provided by the bent bars, deflecting the compass needle.
But a balance may still be obtained by altering the effective number of turns in the test coil, and thus increasing or decreasing the magnetizing force acting on the test rod, till the induction in the two rods is the same, a condition which is fulfilled when reversal of the current has no effect on the compass needle.
Let m be the number of turns in use, and H 1 and H2 the magnetizing forces which produce the same induction B in the test and the standard rods respectively; then H1=H2Xm/Ioo.
Experiments were afterwards made with rods of iron, nickel, and cobalt, the external field being carried up to the high value of 1500 units.
Honda, measured the changes of length of various metals shaped in the form of ovoids instead of cylindrical rods, and determined the magnetization curves for the same specimens; a higher degree of accuracy was thus attained, and satisfactory data were provided for testing theories.
Coulomb, 2 however, by using long and thin steel rods, symmetrically magnetized, and so arranged that disturbing influences became negligibly small, was enabled to deduce from his experiments with reasonable certainty the law that the force of attraction or repulsion between two poles varies inversely as the square of the distance between them.
Ann., 1888, 33, 194) obtained similar results by using cylindrical glass rods in place of the column of water.
A man-engine consists of two heavy wooden rods (like the rods of a Cornish pumping plant), placed parallel and close to each other in a special shaft compartment, and suspended at the surface from a pair of massive walking beams (or " bobs ").
The rods are caused to oscillate slowly by an engine, one rising while the other is falling.
As the rods make their measured strokes one of the miners, starting from the surface, steps on the first platform as it rises to the surface landing and is then lowered on the down stroke.
Mine pumps are of two classes: (I) those in which the driving engine is on the surface and operates the pumps by a long line of rods passing down the shaft, commonly known as the Cornish system; (2) direct-acting pumps, in which the engine and pumping cylinders form a single unit, placed close to the point underground from which the water is to be raised.
The tools used are extremely primitive - hollow iron blowing-rods, solid rods for holding vessels during manipulation, spring tools, resembling sugar-tongs in shape, with steel or wooden blades for fashioning the viscous glass, callipers, measure-sticks, and a variety of moulds of wood, carbon, cast iron, gun-metal and plaster of Paris (figs.
The glasses to which the Venetians gave the name " mille fiori " were formed by arranging side by side sections of glass cane, the canes themselves being built up of differently coloured rods of glass, and binding them together by heat.
The following table gives the electric conductivities of a number of metals as determined by Matthiesen, and the relative internal thermal conductivities of (nominally) the same metals as determined by Wiedemann and Franz, with rods about 5 mm.
The principle of this mode of pruning is to train in at considerable length, according to their strength, shoots of the last year's growth for producing shoots to bear fruit in the present; these rods are afterwards cut away and replaced by young shoots trained up during the preceding summer; and these are in their turn cut out in the following autumn after bearing, and replaced by shoots of that summer's growth.
By the short-rod system, short instead of long rods are retained; they are dealt with in a similar manner.
These cut plants may be laid in rows on the ground to wilt, or spitted on long rods or laths supported on trestles, or placed on special drying racks.
My house was on the side of a hill, immediately on the edge of the larger wood, in the midst of a young forest of pitch pines and hickories, and half a dozen rods from the pond, to which a narrow footpath led down the hill.
The Fitchburg Railroad touches the pond about a hundred rods south of where I dwell.
Nay, I was frequently notified of the passage of a traveller along the highway sixty rods off by the scent of his pipe.
It is wonderful with what elaborateness this simple fact is advertised--this piscine murder will out--and from my distant perch I distinguish the circling undulations when they are half a dozen rods in diameter.
As near as he could remember, it stood twelve or fifteen rods from the shore, where the water was thirty or forty feet deep.
He dived again, but I miscalculated the direction he would take, and we were fifty rods apart when he came to the surface this time, for I had helped to widen the interval; and again he laughed long and loud, and with more reason than before.
He manoeuvred so cunningly that I could not get within half a dozen rods of him.
Sometimes, however, he will run upon a wall many rods, and then leap off far to one side, and he appears to know that water will not retain his scent.
He would perhaps have placed alder branches over the narrow holes in the ice, which were four or five rods apart and an equal distance from the shore, and having fastened the end of the line to a stick to prevent its being pulled through, have passed the slack line over a twig of the alder, a foot or more above the ice, and tied a dry oak leaf to it, which, being pulled down, would show when he had a bite.
A thermometer thrust into the middle of Walden on the 6th of March, 1847, stood at 32º, or freezing point; near the shore at 33º; in the middle of Flint's Pond, the same day, at 32º; at a dozen rods from the shore, in shallow water, under ice a foot thick, at 36º.
One pleasant morning after a cold night, February 24th, 1850, having gone to Flint's Pond to spend the day, I noticed with surprise, that when I struck the ice with the head of my axe, it resounded like a gong for many rods around, or as if I had struck on a tight drum-head.
There is a canal two rods wide along the northerly and westerly sides, and wider still at the east end.
The method which Napier terms "Rabdologia" consists in the use of certain numerating rods for the performance of multiplications and divisions.
These rods, which were commonly called "Napier's bones," will be described further on.