The arrangement of the numbers on the rods will be evident from fig.
In 1623 Ursinus published Rhabdologia Neperiana at Berlin, and the rods or bones were described in several other works.
With respect to the calculating rods, he mentions in the dedication that they had already found so much favour as to be almost in common use, and even to have been carried to foreign countries; and that he has been advised to publish his little work relating to their mechanism and use, lest they should be put forth in some one else's name.
The figures as written down are 12510 6255 14595 1534560 Napier's rods or bones consist of ten oblong pieces of wood or other material with square ends.
The set of ten rods is thus equivalent to four sets of slips as described above, and by their means we may multiply every number less than II,irr, and also any number (consisting of course FIG.
Of course two sets of rods may be used, and by their means we may multiply every number less than 111,111,111 and so on.
In the Rabdologia the rods are called "virgulae," b'ut in the passage quoted above from the manuscript on arithmetic they are referred to as "bones" (ossa).
Besides the logarithms and the calculating rods or bones, Napier's name is attached to certain rules and formulae in spherical trigonometry.
This simple form of crane thus embodies the essential elements of foundation, post, framework, jib, tie-rods and gearing.
A and A' carry two light vertical rods S, M, the one as much in front of the other as there is space between two successive holes in the perforated ribbon.
To the other ends of A, A', rods H, H' are loosely hinged, their ends passing loosely through holes in the end of the bar L.
Ordinary indifferent cells of the epithelium containing pigment-granules, and (2) visual cells, slender sensory epithelial cells of the usual type, which may develop visual cones or rods at their free extremity.
In the red variety of Cucurbita pepo these crystals may consist of rods, thin plates, flat ribbons or spirals.
6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.
In the retina the cones prevail in numbers over the rods, as in the mammals, and their tips contain, as in other Sauropsida, coloured drops of oil, mostly red or yellow.
A highand low-pressure cylinder are cast together, and the piston-rods belonging to them are both coupled to one cross-head which is connected to the driving-wheels, these again being coupled to other wheels in the usual way.
In this engine the two piston-rods of one side are not coupled to a common cross-head, but drive on separate cranks at an angle of 180°, the pair of 180° cranks on each side being placed at right angles.
The advantages claimed for it are: short coupling-rods, large and unlimited fire-box carried by a trailing axle, compactness, and great power for a given weight.
It has many advantages for heavy high-speed service, namely, large and well-proportioned boiler, practically unlimited grate area, fire-box of favourable proportions for firing, fairly low centre of gravity, short coupling-rods, and, finally, a combination of the safe and smooth riding qualities of the fourcoupled bogie type, with great steaming capacity and moderate axle loads.
The frame is crossed by four metal horizontal rods passing through holes large enough to allow them to rattle when the sistrum is shaken, the rods being prevented from slipping out altogether by little metal stops in the shape of a leaf; sometimes metal rings are threaded over the rods to increase the jingling.
These consist of fine rods suspended between two points of the cuticle, and connected with nerve-fibres; they are known as chordotonal organs.
The fishing tools are generally attached to the cable, and are used with portions of the ordinary string of tools, but some are fitted to pump-rods or tubing, and others to special rods.
The principle of this system consists essentially in the use of rotating hollow drilling rods or casing, to which is attached the drilling-bit and through which a continuous stream of water, under a pressure of 40 to loo lb.
The sucker is connected by a string of sucker-rods with the walkingbeam.
The use of slender wooden boring-rods instead of a cable.
The system usually adopted is a modification of the Canadian system already described, the boring rods being, however, of iron instead of wood, but the cable system has also to some extent been used.
This aggressive character has a different aspect in several genera which are destitute of a central stylet, but in which the surface that is turned outwards upon eversion of the proboscis is largely pro- P. vided with nematocysts, sending the urticating rods of different sizes in all directions.
The more highly organized species have often very numerous eyes (Amphiporus, Drepanophorus), which are provided with a spherical refracting anterior portion, with a cellular " vitreous body," with a layer of delicate radially arranged rods, with an outer sheath of dark pigment, and with a separate nerve-twig each, springing from a common or double pair of branches which leave the brain as n.
Phioxus; (c) the skeletal rods in the tongue-bars of Balanoglossus are double; (d) the tongue-bar in Balanoglossus does not fuse with the ventral border of the cleft, but ends freely below, thus producing a continuous U-shaped cleft.
(35) Du Bois has shown that _when the dimensional ratio in (= length/ diameter) exceeds t00, Nm 2 =constant=45, and hence for long thin rods N = 45/ m2.
(36) From an analysis of a number of experiments made with rods of different dimensions H.
These cut plants may be laid in rows on the ground to wilt, or spitted on long rods or laths supported on trestles, or placed on special drying racks.
The principle of this mode of pruning is to train in at considerable length, according to their strength, shoots of the last year's growth for producing shoots to bear fruit in the present; these rods are afterwards cut away and replaced by young shoots trained up during the preceding summer; and these are in their turn cut out in the following autumn after bearing, and replaced by shoots of that summer's growth.
By the short-rod system, short instead of long rods are retained; they are dealt with in a similar manner.
The following table gives the electric conductivities of a number of metals as determined by Matthiesen, and the relative internal thermal conductivities of (nominally) the same metals as determined by Wiedemann and Franz, with rods about 5 mm.
The glasses to which the Venetians gave the name " mille fiori " were formed by arranging side by side sections of glass cane, the canes themselves being built up of differently coloured rods of glass, and binding them together by heat.
The tools used are extremely primitive - hollow iron blowing-rods, solid rods for holding vessels during manipulation, spring tools, resembling sugar-tongs in shape, with steel or wooden blades for fashioning the viscous glass, callipers, measure-sticks, and a variety of moulds of wood, carbon, cast iron, gun-metal and plaster of Paris (figs.
A man-engine consists of two heavy wooden rods (like the rods of a Cornish pumping plant), placed parallel and close to each other in a special shaft compartment, and suspended at the surface from a pair of massive walking beams (or " bobs ").
The rods are caused to oscillate slowly by an engine, one rising while the other is falling.
As the rods make their measured strokes one of the miners, starting from the surface, steps on the first platform as it rises to the surface landing and is then lowered on the down stroke.
Mine pumps are of two classes: (I) those in which the driving engine is on the surface and operates the pumps by a long line of rods passing down the shaft, commonly known as the Cornish system; (2) direct-acting pumps, in which the engine and pumping cylinders form a single unit, placed close to the point underground from which the water is to be raised.
Ann., 1888, 33, 194) obtained similar results by using cylindrical glass rods in place of the column of water.