Soon, too, it came to be used for personal ends, particularly by Robespierre, who employed it for the condemnation of his adversaries.
During the Terror he was one of those deputies of the centre who supported Robespierre; but he was gained over by the members of the Mountain hostile to Robespierre, and his support, along with that of some other leaders of the Marais, made possible the 9th Thermidor.
The movement was successful; Robespierre and his friends were guillotined; and Tallien, as the leading Thermidorian, was elected to the Committee of Public Safety.
His hostility to the insurrectional commune of Paris, which led him to propose transferring the government to Blois, and his attacks upon Robespierre and his friends rendered him very unpopular.
On the other hand, the more conservative section of the Poles regarded Kollontaj as "a second Robespierre," and he is even suspected of complicity in the outrages of the 17th and, 8th of June 1794, when the Warsaw mob massacred the political prisoners.
The club disowned Danton and Desmoulins and attacked Robespierre for his "moderation," but the new insurrection which it attempted failed, and its leaders were guillotined on the 24th of March 1794, from which date nothing is known of the club.
Simon was sent to the guillotine with Robespierre in 1794, and two years later Marie Jeanne entered a hospital for incurables in the rue de Sevres, where she constantly affirmed the dauphin's escape.
Robespierre visited Marie Therese on the 11th of May, but no one, according to the legend, entered the dauphin's room for six months until Barras visited the prison after the 9th Thermidor (July 2 7, 1794).
576-577) that Robespierre in the night of 23-24 May fetched the king (the dauphin) from the Temple and took him to Meudon.
He was soon released owing to the interposition of the younger Robespierre and of Saliceti.
In this school, in which Robespierre was also a bursar and a distinguished student, Camille Desmoulins laid the solid foundation of his learning.
With Robespierre he was now more than ever associated, and the Histoire des Brissotins, the fragment above alluded to, was inspired by the arch-revolutionist.
In December 1793 was issued the first number of the Vieux Cordelier, which was at first directed against the Hebertists and approved of by Robespierre, but which soon formulated Danton's idea of a committee of clemency.
Then Robespierre turned against Desmoulins and took advantage of the popular indignation roused against the Hebertists to send them to death.
On the 7th of January 1 794 Robespierre, who on a former occasion had defended Camille when in danger at the hands of the National Convention, in addressing the Jacobin club counselled not the expulsion of Desmoulins, but the burning of certain numbers of the Vieux Cordelier.
In his last number, the seventh, which his publisher refused to print, he had dared to attack even Robespierre, but at his trial it was found that he was devoid of physical courage.
The execution of Robespierre on the 28th of July had ended the Terror, and Babeuf - now self-styled "Gracchus" Babeuf - defended the men of Thermidor and attacked the fallen terrorists with his usual violence.
The next year her mother died, and the fall of Robespierre opened the way back to Paris.
See French Revolution; Girondists; Mountain; D Anton; Robespierre; Marat, &C.
On account of his friendship with Robespierre, Saliceti was denounced at the revolution of 9 Thermidor, and was saved only by the amnesty of the year IV.
The scheme, in the main the work of Sieyes, was refused by the Convention, who submitted the whole question to a special commission of six, which under the influence of Robespierre adopted a report by Michel le Peletier de Saint Fargeau shortly before his tragic death.
Cambon then incurred the hatred of Robespierre by proposing the suppression of the pay to the clergy, which would have meant the separation of church and state.
His courageous intervention in favour of the Girondists on the 2nd of June 1793 served Robespierre as a pretext to prevent his re-election to the Committee of Public Safety.
In matters of finance Cambon was now supreme; but his independence, his hatred of dictatorship, his protests against the excesses of the Revolutionary Tribunal, won him Robespierre's renewed suspicion, and on the 8th Thermidor Robespierre accused him of being antirevolutionary and an aristocrat.
Before 22 Prairial the Revolutionary Tribunal had pronounced 1220 death-sentences in thirteen months; during the forty-nine days between the passing of the law and the fall of Robespierre 1376 persons were condemned, including many innocent victims. The lists of prisoners to be sent before the tribunal were prepared by a popular commission sitting at the museum, and signed, after revision, by the Committee of General Security and the Committee of Public Safety jointly.
Although Robespierre was the principal purveyor of the tribunal, we possess only one of these lists bearing his signature.
But the Terror could not be maintained at the same pitch: Robespierre began to see that he must strike at many of his own colleagues in the committees if he was to carry out his theories, and Tallien was one of the men condemned with them.
Robespierre, who was himself on the brink of the volcano, remembered the venomous sallies in the Journal de Paris.
The list of his works includes hymns and national songs - among others, the famous Chant du depart; odes, Sur la mort de Mirabeau, Sur l'oligarchie de Robespierre, &c.; tragedies which never reached the stage, Brutus et Cassius, Philippe deux, Tibere; translations from Sophocles and Lessing, from Gray and Horace, from Tacitus and Aristotle; with elegies, dithyrambics and Ossianic rhapsodies.
Without being formally opposed to Robespierre, he did not support him, and he was the only member of the Committee of Public Safety who did not sign the order for the execution of Danton and his party.
On the 23rd of the same month he obtained a decree closing all the churches of Paris, and placing the priests under strict surveillance; but on the 25th he retraced his steps and obtained from the Commune the free exercise of worship. He wished to save the Hebertists by a new insurrection and struggled against Robespierre; but a revolutionary decree promulgated by the Commune on his demand was overthrown by the Convention.
Robespierre had him accused with the Hebertists; he was arrested, imprisoned in the Luxembourg, condemned by the Revolutionary tribunal and executed on the 13th of April 1794.
On the fall of Robespierre, Beauchamp was transferred to the bureau of the minister of police, and charged with the superintendence of the press.
He acquiesced in the fall of Robespierre in 1794, but later defended Barere and others among his colleagues, declaring that he himself had constantly signed papers without reading them, as it was physically impossible to do so in the press of business.
After the fall of Robespierre he joined the group of "Thermidorians" and was sent on mission to the south of France, where he closed the Jacobin club at Toulouse and set free a number of imprisoned "suspects."
The coup d'etat of Thermidor (July 28, 1794) compelled the young disciple of Robespierre hurriedly to leave St Maximin, and to accept a small post at St Chamans.
Moreover, the Septembriseurs- Robespierre, Danton, Marat and their lesser satellites - realized that not only their influence but their safety depended on keeping the Revolution alive.
Robespierre, who hated the Girondists, whose lustre had so long obscured his own, had proposed to includethem in the proscription lists of September; the Mountain to a man desired their overthrow.
The survivors of the party made an effort to re-enter the Convention after the fall of Robespierre, but it was not until the 5th of March 1795 that they were formally reinstated.
Thrown into prison on a frivolous charge of friendliness to the royalists and England, he was released after the fall of Robespierre in the summer of 1794, and rose in the service until, in 1799, he became chief commissary to the French army serving under Massena in the north of Switzerland.
But he became uneasy for his own safety and turned against Robespierre, whom he attacked on the 8th Thermidor as a "moderate" and a Dantonist.
He took part in the reaction which followed the fall of Robespierre, sat in the Council of the Five Hundred under the Directory, and at the coup d'etat of the 18th Fructidor (Sept.
He was closely allied with his namesake Merlin "of Thionville," and, after the counter-revolution which brought about the fall of Robespierre, xvni.
(27th of July 1794), which resulted in the fall of Robespierre and the collapse of the Terror.
During their struggle with the Girondists, the Montagnards gained the upper hand in the Jacobin Club, and for a time Jacobin and Montagnard were synonymous terms. The Mountain was successively under the sway of such men as Marat, Danton, and Robespierre, and the group finally disappeared after Robespierre's death and the successes of the French arms.
He entered into correspondence with Robespierre, who, flattered by his worship, admitted him to his friendship. Thus supported, Saint-Just became deputy of the department of Aisne to the National Convention, where he made his first speech on the condemnation of Louis XVI.
In the Convention, in the Jacobin Club, and among the populace his relations with Robespierre became known, and he was dubbed the "St John of the Messiah of the People."
What were then called reports were rather appeals to the passions; in Saint-Just's hands they furnished the occasion for a display of fanatical daring, of gloomy eloquence, and of undoubted genius; and - with the shadow of Robespierre behind him - they served their turn.
Meanwhile affairs in Paris looked gloomier than ever, and Robespierre recalled Saint-Just to the capital.
It suffered severely during the French Revolution, especially from Joseph Lebon, who, like the brothers Maximilien and Augustin Robespierre, was a native of the town.
After the fall of Robespierre, Legendre took part in the reactionary movement, undertook the closing of the Jacobin Club, was.
He incurred the suspicion of Robespierre, was thrown into prison, and escaped the guillotine by an accident.
At the downfall of Robespierre, Paine was restored to his seat in the convention, and served until it adjourned in October 1795.
The antagonism caused by such an attitude had reached a significant point when on the 10th of April Robespierre himself laid his accusation before the Convention.
In May 1794 an attempt was made to assassinate Collot; but it only increased his popularity, and this won him the hatred of Robespierre, against whom he took sides on the 9th Thermidor, when he presided over the Convention during a part of the session.
On the outbreak of the revolution Freron, who was a schoolfellow of Robespierre and Camille Desmoulins, established the violent journal L'Orateur du people.
Imprisoned in La Force (1794) he was one of those who had the good fortune to escape the guillotine till the death of Robespierre set them free.
Chaumette (q.v.) the "worship of Reason," in opposition to the theistic cult inaugurated by Robespierre, against whom he tried to excite a popular movement.
In 1794 The Fall of Robespierre, of which Coleridge wrote the first act and Southey the other two, appeared.
He hesitated for a time as to which party he should join, but finally decided for that of Robespierre, with whom he had many opinions in common, especially in matters of religion.
During the crisis preceding the 9th Thermidor, Couthon showed considerable courage, giving up a journey to Auvergne in order, as he wrote, that he might either die or triumph with Robespierre and liberty.
Arrested with Robespierre and Saint-Just, his colleagues in the triumvirate of the Terror, and subjected to indescribable sufferings and insults, he was taken to the scaffold on the same cart with Robespierre on the 28th of July 1794 (loth Thermidor).
Excluded at the instance of Robespierre from the Jacobin Club, he was soon afterwards implicated in an accusation levelled against the Hebertists.
Then Robespierre was beheaded for being a despot.