Pasteur's important researches mark an epoch in the technical aspect of fermentation.
Attempts have been made, principally founded on some remarks of Huygens, to show that Descartes had learned the principles of refraction from the manuscript of a treatise by Willebrord Snell, but the facts are uncertain; and, so far as Descartes founds his optics on any one, it is probably on the researches of Kepler.
Ainsworth, Researches in Assyria (1838); R.
Thenard stated that yeast was the cause of fermentation, and held it to be of an animal nature, since it contained nitrogen and yielded ammonia on distillation, nor was it conclusively proved that the yeast cell was the originator of fermentation until the researches of C. Cagniard de la Tour, T.
About this time Hansen, who had long been engaged in researches on the biology of the fungi of fermentation, demonstrated that yeast free from bacteria could nevertheless occasion diseases in beer.
In delicate researches two divisions of the scale should always be read, not merely for increased accuracy but to obtain the corrections for " run " from the observations themselves.
Borelli (1608-1679) as its most notable name, entered in a way on the mechanical study of anatomy suggested by Descartes, but was probably much more dependent upon the positive researches of Galileo.
In 1859 he began, in concert with Sir William Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin), to work on problems respecting the making and use of cables, and the importance of his researches on the resistance of gutta-percha was at once recognized.
Smith, Early History of India (1904), and the references there given to the researches of Sir T.
Tozer, Researches in the Highlands of Turkey (London, 1869); F.
According to the researches of R.
As early as 1866, tannic acid, gallic acid, wood spirit, acetic acid, essential oil and eucalyptol were produced from various species of eucalyptus, and researches made by Australian chemists, notably by Messrs.
Researches go to show that Baiame has his counterpart in other tribes, the myth varying greatly in detail.
The main results of these researches, which occupied him from 1854 to 1864, are contained in his Report on the Theory of Numbers, which appeared in the British Association volumes from 1859 to 1865.
The fact that a question of which Smith had given the solution in 1867, as a corollary from general formulae governing the whole class of investigations to which it belonged, should have been set by the Academie as the subject of their great prize shows how far in advance of his contemporaries his early researches had carried him.
During the last few years of his life Boole was constantly engaged in extending his researches with the object of producing a second edition of his Differential Equations much more complete than the first edition; and part of his last vacation was spent in the libraries of the Royal Society and the British Museum.
During the three years he held this position he carried out researches on the contact of elastic solids, hardness, evaporation and the electric discharge in gases, the last earning him the special commendation of Helmholtz.
There he continued his researches on the discharge of electricity in rarefied gases, only just missing the discovery of the X-rays described by W.
It is true that the killing of the god plays a prominent part in primitive cults, as has been shown more particularly through the valuable researches of J.
The researches of Liebig (1823), Liebig and Gay-Lussac (1824), and of Liebig again in 1838 showed the acid to be isomeric with cyanic acid, and probably (Hcno) 2, since it gave mixed and acid salts.
It has been sometimes misspelt "Tapacolo," as by C. Darwin, who gave (Journal of Researches, chap. xii.) a brief but entertaining account of the habits of this bird and its relative, Hylactes megapodius, called by the Chilenos "El Turco."
The results of these researches are published in the Sitz.
Even the prologues, which later researches have shown to be in the main by the hand of Plautus himself, though certain passages were clearly added at a later date, e.g.
Bell, " Telephone Researches," in Journ.
On the other hand, the Bactrian species, which is employed throughout a large tract of central Asia in the domesticated condition, appears, according to recent researches, to exist in the wild state in some of the central Asian deserts.
The ethnography of ancient Italy is a very complicated and difficult subject, and notwithstanding the researches of modern scholars is still involved in some obscurity.
His researches went back to very early times; Pliny (Nat.
GayLussac, and the two carried out many researches together.
His researches on sebacic acid (1802) and on bile (1807), and his discovery of peroxide of hydrogen (1818) also deserve mention.
This was not only in itself an important contribution to plant anatomy, but served as the starting-point of a series of researches by Van Tieghem and his pupils, which has considerably advanced our knowledge of the details of histology, and also culminated in the foundation of the doctrine of the stele (Van Tieghem and Douliot, Sur la polystlie, Ann.
This branch of the subject, founded by Corda, Goppert, Stenzel and others in Germany, was enoi~mously advanced by Williamsons work on the Coal Measures plants, recorded in the magnificent series of memoirs, Researches on the Organization.
One of the most remarkable of Airy's researches was his determination of the mean density of the earth.
He became first a postmaster near Lyons, and in 1841 was appointed, through the influence of some of his friends who had risen to posts of power, member of a scientific commission on Algeria, which led him to engage in researches concerning North Africa and colonization in general.
Ainsworth, Researches in Assyria and Babylonia (1838), and Personal Narrative of the Euphrates Expedition (1888); A.
His spare time was devoted to the prosecution of studies in philology and history, more particularly to the study of Thucydides, and of the new light which had been cast upon Roman history and upon historical method in general by the researches of Niebuhr.
C. Chandler's discussion of them in 1894, in the course of his researches into the variation of latitude (Astron.
Actual or projected routes for telegraph cables across the deep sea have also been sounded with extreme accuracy in many cases; but beyond these lines of sounding the vast spaces of the ocean remain unplumbed save for the rare researches of scientific expeditions, such as those of the " Challenger," the " Valdivia," the " Albatross " and the " Scotia."
Beyerinck was led to take up the decided position just mentioned by his researches into the conditions determining the formation of plant-galls as the result of injury by insects.
Our knowledge of the chemical constitutions of the nucleus is due to the pioneer researches of Sir Lauder Brunton, Plosz, Miescher, Kossel and a host of more recent investigators.
+h,r, 1)s~,~s-s Diatoms and Desmids, according to recent researches, the thickenings on the outer walls of the cells are due to the passage of protoplasm from the interior of the cell to the outside, through pores which are found perforating the wall on all sides.
It was at one time thought that the centrosomes played an important part in the fertilization of plants, but recent researches seem to indicate that this is not so.
The researches of the last twenty years have shown that the structure of the nucleus and the phenomena of nuclear division in these lower forms conforms in all essential details to those in the higher plants.