The term " telephony " was first used by Philipp Reis of Friedrichsdorf, in a lecture delivered before the Physical Society of Frankfort in 1861.1 But, although this lecture and Reis's subsequent work received considerable notice, little progress was made until the subject was taken up between 1874 and 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, a native of Edinburgh, then resident in Boston, Mass., U.S.A. Bell, like Reis, employed electricity for the reproduction of sounds; but he attacked the problem in a totally different manner.
Experiments bearing on this subject were subsequently made by a great number of investigators.4 Page's discovery is of considerable importance in connexion with the theory of action of various forms of telephone, and was a very important feature in the early attempts by Reis to transit music and speech.
These suggestions were to some extent an anticipation of the work of Reis; but the conditions to be fulfilled before the sounds given out at the receiving station can be similar in pitch, quality and relative intensity to those produced at the transmitting station are not stated, and do not seem to have been appreciated.
Reis caused a membrane to open and close an electric 2 See his Scientific Papers, P. 47.
P. Thompson, Philipp Reis, the Inventor of the Telephone (London, 1883).
Considering the time at which he wrote, Reis seems to have understood very well the nature of the vibrations he had to reproduce, but he failed to comprehend how they could be reproduced by electricity.
The suggestion of Bourseul and the experiments of Reis are founded on the idea that a succession of currents, corresponding in number to the successive undulations of the pressure on the membrane of the transmitting instrument, could reproduce at the receiving station sounds of the same character as those produced at the sending station.
Neither of them seemed to recognize anything as important except pitch and amplitude, and Reis thought the amplitude was to some extent obtained by the varying length of contact in the transmitting instrument.
Serajevo is the seat of the provincial government, of a Roman Catholic bishop, an Orthodox metropolitan, the highest Moslem ecclesiastical authority or Reis-el-ulema, and the supreme court.
Serajevo is also the seat of the Jewish chief rabbi; and of the highest Moslem ecclesiastic, or reis-el-ulema, who with his council is nominated and paid by the government.
The power of the Ottomans at sea was maintained during this period by a series of notable captains, such as Khair-ed-din and his son Hassan, Piale, Torgud, Sali Reis and Pin Reis.
Sali Reis, also by birth a Christian of Asia Minor, was likewise successful as a corsair; he distinguished himself especially at the capture of Tunis, and succeeded Hassan Barbarossa as beylerbey of Algiers.
Of these the most remarkable was Piri Reis, nephew of Kamil Reis, the famous corsair who, under Bayezid II., had swept the Aegean and Mediterranean.
The secretarial class consisted of six categories: the nishanjis, the defterdars, the reis, the defter emini, the shakk-i-sani (or second class) defterdars and the shakk-i-salis (or third class) defterdars.
The reis was the secretary-general of the divan, and in more modern times became minister for foreign affairs.
In 1835 the Reis-ul-Kuttab, to whom the superintendence of foreign affairs was entrusted, received the designation of minister for foreign affairs.
The letter rate was at first 200 reis (nearly 52d.), but it has been increased to 300 reis, which is equivalent to 8d.
Metallic money is limited to nickel and bronze coins, but in 1906 the government was authorized to purchase bar silver for the coinage of pieces of the denomination of two milreis, one milreis and 500 reis (2-milreis).
In early works it is sometimes termed Cidade dos Reis (City of the Kings).
D-Mannose, first prepared by oxidizing d-mannite, found in plants and manna-ash (Fraxinus ornus), was obtained by Tollens and Gans on hydrolysing cellulose and by Reis from seminine (reserve cellulose), found in certain plant seeds, e.g.
Asez sai que chescun en dit E co qu'il unt mis en escrit, Mes sulun go que j'ai of Nel dient pas sulun Breri Ky solt les gestes e les cuntes De tuz les reis, de tuz les cuntes, Ki orent este en Bretaingne."
& des reis, otherwise called the corporation of the corsairs (see Barbary Pirates), and the janissaries, a kind of military democracy in which each member was promoted according to seniority.
Muller, Reizen en onderzoekingen in den Indischen Archipel (Amsterdam, 1857); C. Bock, Head-hunters of Borneo (London, 1881), and Reis in Oost en Zuid-Borneo (The Hague, 1887); J.
The values of coin and notes are expressed in multiples of the real (plural reis), a monetary unit which does not actually exist.
The milreis, 1000 reis of the par value of 4s.
(or 4.5 milreis to the pound sterling) and the conto of reis (moo milreis) are used for the calculation of large sums. Gold pieces of 10, 5, 2 and 1 milreis were coined up to 1891; 10, 5, and 2 testoon (testdo) pieces, worth respectively 1000, 500 and 200 reis, are coined in silver; testoons of Ioo reis and half testoons of 50 reis, in nickel; pieces of 20, 10 and 5 reis in bronze.
The British sovereign is legal tender for 4500 reis, but in practice usually commands a premium.
All male citizens 21 years old who could read and write, or who paid taxes amounting to 500 reis yearly, had the parliamentary franchise, except convicts, beggars, undischarged bankrupts, domestic servants, workmen permanently employed by the state and soldiers or sailors below the rank of commissioned officer.
Carel, Vieira, sa vie et ses oeuvres (Paris, 1879); Luiz Cabral, Vieira, biog., caractere, eloquence (Paris, 1900); idem, Vieira pregador (2 vols., Oporto, 1901); Sotero dos Reis, Curso de litteratura Portugueza e Brazileira, iii.
He also published biographies of Reis, Faraday and Kelvin.
There is a monument to Philipp Reis (1834-1874), who in 1860 first constructed the telephone while a science master at the school.