The investigations of Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay had shown that indifference to chemical reagents did not sufficiently characterize an unknown gas as nitrogen, and it became necessary to reinvestigate other cases of the occurrence of "nitrogen" in nature.
JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT RAYLEIGH, 3rd baron (1842-), English physicist, was born in Essex on the 12th of November 1842, being the son of the 2nd baron.'
Lord Rayleigh had an interest in abnormal psychological investigations, and became a member and vicepresident of the Society for Psychical Research.
In 1875 Lord Rayleigh published an investigation on "the work which may be gained during the mixing of gases."
In the experiment imagined by Lord Rayleigh a porous diaphragm takes the place of the partition and trap-doors imagined by Clerk Maxwell, and the molecules sort themselves automatically on account of the difference in their average velocities for the two gases.
In 1894 he was associated with Lord Rayleigh in the discovery of argon, announced at that year's meeting of the British Association in Oxford, and in the following year he found in certain rare minerals such as cleveite the gas helium which till that time had only been known on spectroscopic evidence as existing in the sun.
The process was developed by Madame Lefebre in 1859; by Meissner in 1863, who found that moist gases gave a better result; and by Prim in 1882, who sparked the gases under pressure; it was also used by Lord Rayleigh in his isolation of argon.
Crookes showed that the arc brought about combination; and in 1897 Lord Rayleigh went into the process more fully.
Lord Rayleigh in 1894 found that the density of atmospheric nitrogen was about 2% higher than that of chemically prepared nitrogen, a discovery which led to the isolation of the rare gases of the atmosphere.
Pp. 342 et seq.; Lord Rayleigh, Proc. Roy.
This correction may be indicated in the diagram by a straight line drawn from o through the point at which the line of I = moo intersects that of H = o 28 (Rayleigh, Phil.
In some experiments carried out in 1887, Lord Rayleigh (Phil.
1,300 [[[Dimensions And Magnetization]] The observations of Baur and Rayleigh have been confirmed and discussed by (amongst others) W.
Lord Rayleigh has recorded that he was himself convinced by Fraunhofer's reasoning at a date antecedent to the writings of Helmholtz and Abbe.
P. 465, 1870; Rayleigh, Nature (October 2, 1873).
See Peter Rayleigh, History of Ye Antient Society of Cogers (London, 1904).
Lord Rayleigh has pointed out that the difference may arise from the heterogeneity of alloys.
In the collected Scientific Papers of Lord Kelvin (3 vols., Cambridge, 1882), of James Clerk Maxwell (2 vols., Cambridge, 1890), and of Lord Rayleigh (4 vols., Cambridge, 1903), the advanced student will find the means for studying the historical development of electrical knowledge as it has been evolved from the minds of some of the master workers of the 19th century.
Lord Rayleigh has made many investigations of the absolute densities of gases, one of which, namely on atmospheric and artificial nitrogen, undertaken in conjunction with Sir William Ramsay, culminated in the discovery of argon.
As a single instance of this may be mentioned some experiments of Lord Rayleigh (Proc. Roy.
Lord Rayleigh (Phil.
Cavendish made many analyses: from more than soo determinations of air in winter and summer, in wet and clear weather, and in town and country, he discerned the mean composition of the atmosphere to be, oxygen 20 833% and nitrogen 79.167% The same experimenter noticed the presence of an inert gas, in very minute amount; this gas, afterwards investigated by Rayleigh and Ramsay, is now named argon.
In some domes, for instance in a dome at the university of Birmingham, a sound from one end of a diameter is heard very much more loudly quite close to the other end of the diameter than elsewhere, but in St Paul's Lord Rayleigh found that " the abnormal loudness with which a whisper is heard is not confined to the position diametrically opposite to that occupied by the whisperer, and therefore, it would appear, does not depend materially upon the symmetry of the dome.
Rayleigh points out that this clinging of the sound to the surface of a concave wall does not depend on the exactness of the spherical form.
This is explained by Rayleigh (Sound, ii.
Lord Rayleigh (Scientific Papers, iii.
If the forks are not of exactly the same frequency the ellipse will slowly revolve, and from its rate of revolution the ratio of the frequencies may be determined (Rayleigh, Sound, i.
Various modifications of the kaleidophone have been made (Rayleigh, Sound, § 38).
These effects have been explained by Lord Rayleigh (Sound, i.
In an experiment described by Rayleigh such a wheel provided with four armatures was used to determine the exact frequency of a driving fork known to have a frequency near 32.
The mathematical investigation of forced vibrations (Rayleigh,Sound, i.
In a later series of experiments Lord Rayleigh (Phil.
Helmholtz's theory of the resonator (Rayleigh, Sound, ii.
It is remarkable that, as Lord Rayleigh says, " the streams of energy required to influence the eye and the ear are of the same order of magnitude."
The position of the loop has not yet been calculated for an ordinary open pipe, but Lord Rayleigh has shown (Sound, ii.
Using this result Rayleigh found the correction for an unflanged open end by sounding two pipes nearly in unison, each provided with a flange, and counting the beats.
Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay (Phil.
141, or Rayleigh, ra ' Sound, ii.
- Helmholtz investigated the velocity of propagation of sound in pipes, taking into account the viscosity of the air (Rayleigh, Sound, ii.
Kundt also obtained results in general agreement with the formula (Rayleigh, Sound, ii.
Lord Rayleigh has shown that there is a tangential motion as well as a motion in and out.
Lord Rayleigh (Sound, ii.
The essential fact, as pointed out by Lord Rayleigh (Scientific Papers, i.
Lord Rayleigh (loc. cit.) points out that this FIG.
Mag., 1878, 2, p. 500, or Rayleigh, Sound, § 386) that sounds of considerable intensity when heard by themselves are liable to be completely obliterated by graver sounds of sufficient force goes far to explain this, for the summation tones are of course always accompanied by such graver sounds.
The second mode of production of combination tones, by the mechanism of the receiver, is discussed by Helmholtz (Sensations of Tone, App. xii.) and Rayleigh (Sound, i.
Wood, have been written largely on the basis of the general physics of the aether; while the Collected Papers of Lord Rayleigh should be accessible to all who desire a first-hand knowledge of the development of the optical side of the subject.
In 1764 Leonhard Euler employed the functions of both zero and integral orders in an analysis into the vibrations of a stretched membrane; an investigation which has been considerably developed by Lord Rayleigh, who has also shown (1878) that Bessel's functions are particular cases of Laplace's functions.
Lamb, C. Chree, Lord Rayleigh); and to hydrodynamics (Lord Kelvin, Sir G.
Lord Rayleigh, to whom we owe the first general discussion of the theory of the spectroscope, found by observation that if two spectroscopic lines of frequencies n1 and n, are observed in an instrument, they are just seen as two separate lines when the centre of the central diffraction band of one coincides with the first minimum intensity of the other.
Theoretical resolving power can only be obtained when the whole collimator is filled with light and further (as pointed out by Lord Rayleigh in the course of discussion during a meeting of the " Optical Convention " in London, 1905) each portion of the collimator must be illuminated by each portion of the luminous source.
In interpreting the phenomena observed in a spectroscope, it is necessary to remember that the instrument, as pointed out by Lord Rayleigh, is itself a producer of homogeneity within the limits defined by its resolving power.
Lord Rayleigh,' who has also investigated vibrating systems giving series of lines approaching a definite limit of " root," remarks that by dynamical reasoning we are always led to equations giving the square of the period and not the period, while in the equation representing spectral series the simplest results are obtained for the first power of the period.