Professor Rand, Georgius Ernst and A.
Herzog, Geschichte rand System der ro.mischen Staatsverfassung (Leipzig, 1884-1891); A.
Taylor, Political rand Constitutional History of Roane (1899).
Krugersdorp was founded in 1887 at the time of the discovery of gold on the Rand and is named after President Kruger.
Two years later, in 1886, the Rand goldfields were proclaimed, and the tide of trade which had already set in with the Transvaal steadily increased.
Meantime it was agreed by the Cape, Transvaal and Natai governments that, subject to Natal entering the Union, its share of the Rand import trade should be 25% before and 30% after the establishment of the Union.
Ac cording to Molengraaff it includes the two following series: - An upper group including the auriferous conglomerates of the Rand: Witwatersrand Series.
The British element is chiefly gathered in Johannesburg and other towns on the Rand and in Pretoria.
In that year the government sanctioned the building of a " steam tramway " - a railway in all but name - from the Boksburg collieries to the Rand gold mines.
A continuation of the Springs-Breyten line eastward through Swaziland to Delagoa Bay will give a second independent railway from that port to the Rand, some 60 m.
Probably connected with the Rand i For projected routes, shortening the journey between Europe and Johannesburg, see the Geog.
The Rand reefs, first mined in 1886, cover a large area.
Deep. The yield of the Rand mines, in 1887 but 23,000 oz., rose in 1888 to 208,000 oz.
In 1905 when a full supply of labour was again available the output was 4,760,000 oz., in which year the sum distributed in dividends to shareholders in the Rand mines was over £4,800,000.
The Klerksdorp and Potchefstroom goldfields, known also as the Western Rand, were proclaimed in 1887 and up to the close of 1908 had yielded 446,224 OZ.
The reefs are narrower than those of the Rand, and the, ore is usually very hard.
There are extensive beds of good coal, including thick seams of steam coal near the Rand and other goldfields.
In 1887 coal was found at Boksburg in the East Rand, and a mine was at once started.
The principal collieries are those at Boksburg and at Brakpan, also on the East Rand, with a coal area of 2400 acres; at Vereeniging and Klerksdorp, near the Vaal; at Watervaal, 12 m.
The building and construction trade is an important industry on the Rand, where there are also brickworks, iron and brass foundries, breweries and distilleries.
The Witwatersrand municipalities are for certain purposes combined into one authority, and representatives of these municipalities, together with representatives of the chamber of mines, compose the Rand water board.
In 1883, before the Rand gold mines had been found revenue and expenditure were about £150,000; in 1887, when the mines were beginning to be developed, the receipts were £668,000 and the expenditure £721,000; in 1889 the receipts had risen to £1,577,000 and the expenditure to £1,226,000.
In 1886 the Rand goldfields, which had just been discovered, were proclaimed and Johannesburg was founded.
From that time the gold industry made steady progress until the Rand gold mines proved the richest and most productive goldfield in the world.
The Delagoa Bay railway being at length completed to Pretoria and Johannesburg, Kruger determined to take steps to bring the Rand traffic over The Netherlands railway Drifts began by putting a prohibitive tariff on goods from the Vaal river.
Not to be coerced in this manner, the Rand merchants proceeded to bring their goods on from the Vaal by wagon.
They induced Alfred Beit, who was an old personal friend of Rhodes, and also largely interested in the Rand gold mines, to lend his co-operation.
In the absence of Charles Leonard, who had been sent as one of the delegates to Cape Town to interview Rhodes, Lionel Phillips, a partner in Messrs Eckstein & Co., the largest mining firm on the Rand, was elected chairman.
Great Britain finally (in 1906) abandoning all her claims. The commercial depression was due to many causes; of these the most apparent was the shortage of labour at the Rand mines.
Finally, to enable them to work their mines to their full capacity, the Rand houses asked for leave to import Chinese labourers.'
The home government concurred, and during1904-1906over 50,000 Chinese were brought to the Rand on three-years' indentures.
The ex-Uitlander) party, which secured 21 seats (out of a total of 69) in the legislative chamber, entirely in the Rand and Pretoria districts, and was led by Sir George Farrar and Sir Percy Fitzpatrick.
General Botha was defeated at Pretoria East by Sir Percy Fitzpatrick, and at Georgetown - a Rand constituency - Mr Hull was beaten by Sir George Farrar.
As revenue flowed in from the gold-mines on the Rand many fine buildings were erected in the capital, which was placed in railway communication with Cape Town in 1893 and with Lourenco Marques and Durban in 1895.
The grateful perfumed powder abir or rand y is composed either of rice, flour, mango bark or deodar wood, camphor and aniseed, or of sandalwood or wood aloes, and zerumbet, zedoary, rose flowers, camphor and civet.
Large numbers of natives sought employment in Natal and at the Rand gold mines, and Zululand enjoyed a period of prosperity hitherto unknown.
Observations in different parts of the world have shown that the increase of temperature in depth varies: in most localities the rise being at the rate of one degree for 50 to 100 feet of depth; while in the deep mines of Michigan and the Rand, an increase as low as one degree for each 200 ft.
JOHANNESBURG, a city of the Transvaal and the centre of the Rand gold-mining industry.
In the vicinity is St Mary's (Anglican) parish hall (1905-1907), the first portion of a large building planned to take the place of "Old" St Mary's Church, the "mother" church of the Rand, built in 1887.
There are also on the Rand, and dependent on the gold-mining, three towns possessing separate municipalities - Germiston and Boksburg, respectively 9 m.
Characteristic of the Rand is the fine white dust arising from the crushing of the ore, and, close to the batteries, the incessant din caused by the stamps employed in that operation.
(For details of gold-mining, see Gold.) A railway traverses the Rand, going westward past Krugersdorp to Klerksdorp and thence to Kimberley, and eastward past Springs to Delagoa Bay.
Of Johannesburg, is obtained much of the coal used in the Rand mines.
- There is an ample supply of water to the town and mines, under a water board representing all the Rand municipalities and the mining companies.
By far the most important addition to the Australasian product has come fromWestAustralia,which began its production in 1887 - about the time of the inception of mining at Witwatersrand ("the Rand") in South Africa-and by continuous increase, which assumed large proportions towards the close of the 19th century, was £6,426,000 in 1899, £6,179,000 in 1900, and L8,212,000 in 1905.
Chalmers, Gold Mines of the Rand; S.
Truscott,Witwaters- rand Goldfields Banket and Mining Practice; Australasia: D.
In 1907 during a period of severe and prolonged trade depression the imports had fallen to £5,263,930, but the exports owing entirely to the increased output of gold from the Rand mines had increased to £37,994,658; gold and diamonds represented over £37,000,000 of this total.
A variety of spices - the wealth of the land - are named on these altars, as rand, ladanum, costus, tarum, &c. Frankincense appears as luban, and there are other names not yet understood.
The administration of justice is entrusted (1) to the high council (hooge rand) at the Hague, the supreme court of the whole kingdom, and the tribunal for all high government officials and for the members of the states-general; (2) to the five courts of justice established at Amsterdam, the Hague, Arnhem, Leeuwarden and 's Hertogenbosch; (3) to tribunals established in each arrondissement; (4) to cantonal judges appointed over a group of communes, whose jurisdiction is restricted to claims of small amount (under 200 guilders), and to breaches of police regulations, and who at the same time look after the interest of minors.
In 1886, the year in which the Rand mines were discovered, President Kruger was by no means a popular man even among his own followers; as an administrator of internal affairs he had shown himself grossly incompetent, and it was only the specious success of his negotiations with the British government which had retained him any measure of support.
He was appointed in 1900 chairman of a commission to inquire into the various concessions which President Kruger and the Rand had granted to companies and private individuals in the Transvaal, and to report which should be maintained and which annulled.
Rand border, edge, hence a low and usually round range of hills.
There flocked to the Rand many thousands of British and other Europeans, together with a considerable number of Americans.
Burdens increased they began to agitate for reforms. In 1892 (the year in which the railway from Cape Town reached the Rand), the National Union was founded at Johannesburg by ex-Cape Colonists of the Imperial progressive party.
Rhodes, who had large interests in the Rand mines, had consistently endeavoured to conciliate the extreme Boer section in the Transvaal and win it over (as had happened in the case of the Cape Dutch) to a policy which should benefit the whole of South Africa.
It is noteworthy that though Napoleon at times sought to shift the responsibility for this deed on Talley-rand or Savary, yet during his voyage to St Helena, as also in his will, he frankly avowed his responsibility for it and asserted that in the like circumstances he would do the same again.
Brigand- age had always existed in the Neapolitan kingdom, largely me rand- owing to the poverty of the people; but the evil was now Wa:
N OH R C R' -SRN: C(OH)R'-->RNH COR' (Rand OH," syn").
The total output from the Rand mines up to the end of 1908 was 56,477,240 oz.