Later quinidine and cinchonidine were discovered, and subsequently several other alkaloids, but in smaller quantity.
The other alkaloids are distinguished from quinine thus: quinidine resembles quinine, but is dextro-rotatory, and the iodide is very insoluble in water; the solution of cinchonidine, which is laevo-rotatory, does not give the thalleoquin test, nor fluorescence; cinchonine resembles cinchonidine in these respects, but is dextrorotatory.
Traces of quinidine are also sometimes, though rarely, found in commercial quinine, but its presence does not detract in a medicinal point of view from the value of the latter.
The sulphate of quinine used in medicine may contain up to 3% of cinchonidine, but should be free from cinchonine, quinidine and cupreine.
The other alkaloids of cinchona bark - quinidine, cinchonidine, and cinchonine - also possess similar properties, but all are much less effective than quinine.
Calisaya, known as the calisaya of Santa Fe, was strongly recommended for cultivation, because the shoots of felled trees afford bark containing a considerable amount of quinine; C. Pitayensia has been introduced into the Indian plantations on account of yielding the valuable alkaloid quinidine, as well as quinine.
Than above that elevation, and that cinchonidine, quinidine, and resin are at the same time increased in amount.