His personal intervention also alleviated the condition of the Quakers, much persecuted at this time.
General Wayne's victory was followed by an extensive immigration of New Englanders, of Germans, Scotch-Irish and Quakers from Pennsylvania, and of settlers from Virginia and Kentucky, many of whom came to escape the evils of slavery.
Robert Barclay (q.v.), a descendant of an ancient Scottish family, who had received a liberal education, principally in Paris, at the Scots College, of which his uncle was rector, joined the Quakers about 1666, and William Penn (q.v.) came to them about two years later.
In July 1656 two women Quakers, Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, arrived at Boston.
Company, to improve the system of defence, and to prevent the sale of liquor and firearms to the Indians, and through his persecution of Lutherans and Quakers, to which the company finally put an end.
Among the mendicant friars of the 13th century, among the Jansenists, the early Quakers, the converts of Wesley and Whitefield, the persecuted protestants of the Cevennes, the Irvingites.
They style themselves " truly spiritual Christians," and in their rejection of the sacraments, their indifference to outward forms, and their insistence on the spiritual interpretation of the Bible (" the letter killeth "), they are closely akin to the Quakers, whom they resemble also in their inoffensive mode of life and the practice of mutual help.
The insurrection of dissenters (1708-1711), which was headed by Thomas Carey, who was deputy-governor while the trouble was brewing, was in opposition to the establishment of the Church of England; it was ultimately unsuccessful, the Church was established in 1711, a law was passed which deprived Quakers of the privilege of serving on juries or holding public office, and the establishment was continued until the War of Independence.
Weeks deals with the religious history in his Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1892), Church and State in North Carolina (Baltimore, 1893) and Southern Quakers and Slavery (Baltimore, 1896); he is anti-Anglican, but judicial.
The religiosity of the Quakers, with their doctrines of the " inner light " and the influence of, the Spirit, has decided affinities with mysticism; and the autobiography of George Fox (1624-1691), the founder of the sect, proceeds throughout on the assumption of supernatural guidance.
The Quakers had always been active controversialists, and a great body of tracts and papers was issued by them; but hitherto these had been of small account from a literary point of view.
During the whole time between their rise and the passing of the Toleration Act 1689, the Quakers were the object of almost continuous persecution which they endured with extraordinary constancy and patience; they insisted on the duty of meeting openly in time of persecution, declining to hold secret assemblies for worship as other Nonconformists were doing.
The Quakers, accused as they were of being Jesuits, and refusing to take the oath, suffered under this proclamation and under the more stringent act of 1656.
Issued his declaration suspending the penal laws in ecclesiastical matters, and shortly afterwards, by pardon under the great seal, he released nearly 500 Quakers from prison, remitted their fines and released such of their estates as were forfeited by praemunire.
It is of interest to note that, although John Bunyan was bitterly opposed to Quakers, his friends, on hearing of the petition contemplated by them, requested them to insert his name on the list, and in this way he gained his freedom.
It is coming to be recognized that the growth of religious toleration owed much to the early Quakers who, with the exception of a few Baptists at the first, stood almost alone among Dissenters in holding their public meetings openly and regularly.
Although many " General " and other meetings were held in different Period of parts of the country for the purpose of setting P Y P P g forth Quakerism, the notion that the whole Christian church would be absorbed in it, and that the Quakers were, in fact, the church, gave place to the conception that they were " a peculiar people " to whom, more than to others, had been given an understanding of the will of God.
Thomas Clarkson (Portraiture of Quakerism) has given an elaborate and sympathetic account of the Quakers as he knew them when he travelled amongst them from house to house on his crusade against the slave trade.
The repeal of the Test Act, the admission of Quakers to Parliament in consequence of their being allowed to affirm instead of taking the oath (1832, when Joseph Pease was elected for South Durham), the establishment of the University of London, and, more recently, the opening of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge to Nonconformists, have all had their effect upon the body.
In fact, the number of men, either Quakers or of Quaker origin and proclivities, who occupy positions of influence in English life is large in proportion to the small body with which they are connected.
Nevertheless, before the rise of the Quakers, these views were nowhere found in conjunction as held by any one set of people; still less were they regarded as the outcome of any one central belief or principle.
In Aberdeen the Quakers took considerable hold, and were there joined by .some persons of influence and position, especially Alexander Jaffray, sometime provost of Aberdeen, and Colonel David Barclay of Ury and his son Robert, the author of the Apology.
Much light has been thrown on the history of the Quakers in Aberdeenshire by the discovery in 1826 at Ury of a MS. Diary -of Jaffray, since published with elucidations (2nd ed., London, 1836).
The History of the Quakers in Ireland (from 1653 to 1752), by Wight and Rutty, may be consulted.
In 1656, 1657 and 1658 laws were passed to prevent the introduction of Quakers into Massachusetts, and it was enacted that on the first conviction one ear should be cut off, on the second the remaining ear, and that on the third conviction the tongue should be bored with a hot iron.
Thereupon the Quakers, who were perhaps not without the -obstinacy of which Marcus Aurelius complained in the early Christians, rushed to Massachusetts as if invited, and the result was that the general court of the colony banished them on pain of death, and four of them, three men and one woman,were hanged for refusing to depart from the jurisdiction or for obstinately returning within it.
A memorial was presented to him by the Quakers in England stating the persecutions which their fellow-members had undergone in New England.
Even the careless Charles was moved to issue an order to the colony which effectually stopped the hanging of the Quakers for their religion, though it by no means put an end to the persecution of the body in New England.
Both these men were Quakers, and in 1675 Fenwicke with a large, company of his co-religionists crossed the Atlantic, sailed up Delaware Bay, and landed at a fertile spot which he called Salem.
Byllynge, having become embarrassed in his circumstances, placed his interest in the land in the hands of Penn and Bothers as trustees for his creditors; they invited buyers, and companies of Quakers in Yorkshire and London were amongst :the largest purchasers.
In1677-1678five vessels with eight hundred emigrants, chiefly Quakers, arrived in the colony (then separated from the rest of New Jersey, under the name of West New Jersey), and the town of Burlington was established.
Notwithstanding certain troubles from claims of the governor of New York and of the duke of York, the colony prospered, and in 1681 the first legislative assembly of the colony, consisting mainly of Quakers, was held.
The offices known to the Quaker body are: (1) that of minister (the term " office " is not strictly applicable, see above as to " recording "); (2) of elder, whose duty it is " to encourage and help young ministers, and advise others as they, in the wisdom of God, see occasion "; (3) of overseer, to whom is especially entrusted that duty of Christian care for and interest in one another which Quakers recognize as obligatory in all the members of a church.
In 1666 Fox established Monthly Meetings; in 1727 elders were first appointed; in 1752 overseers were added; and in 1737 the right of children of Quakers to be considered as members was fully recognized.
In 1783 the first petition to the House of Commons for the abolition of the slave trade and slavery went up from the Quakers; and in the long agitation which ensued the Society took a prominent part.
In 1798 Joseph Lancaster, himself a Friend, opened his first school for the education of the poor; and the cause of unsectarian religious education found in the Quakers steady support.
Edmund Harvey (The Rise of the Quakers) and by Mrs Emmott (The Story of Quakerism).
The Sufferings of the Quakers by Joseph Besse (1753) gives a detailed account of the persecution of the early Friends in England and America.
At Ackworth, in the neighbourhood, there is a large school of the Society of Friends or Quakers (1778), in the foundation of which Dr John Fothergill (1712-1780) was a prime mover.
The first persons in England who took united practical action against the slave trade were the Quakers, following the expression of sentiment which had emanated so early as 1671 from their founder George Fox.
The Quakers in America had taken action on the subject still earlier than those in England.
The Pennsylvanian Quakers advised their members against the trade in 1696; in 1754 they issued to their brethren a strong dissuasive against encouraging it in any manner; in 1774 all persons concerned in the traffic, and in 1776 all slave holders who would not emancipate their slaves, were excluded from membership. The Quakers in the other American provinces followed the lead of their brethren in Pennsylvania.
The individuals among the American Quakers who laboured most earnestly and indefatigably on behalf of the Africans were John Woolman (1720-1773) and Anthony Benezet (1713-1784), the latter a son of a French Huguenot driven from France by the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
The Quakers of Pennsylvania possibly began the work of the mysterious Underground Railroad; the best known of them was Thomas Garrett (1789-1871), a native of Pennsylvania, who, in 1822, removed to Wilmington, Delaware, where he was convicted in 1848 on four counts under the Fugitive Slave Law and was fined $800o; he is said to have helped 2700 slaves to freedom.
After his release Prynne further expressed his feelings in defence of advowsons and patrons, an attack on the Quakers (1655), and in a pamphlet against the admission of the Jews to England (A Short Demurrer to the Jews) issued in 1656.
In 1775 the Nantucket fleet numbered 150, and the population was between 5000 and 6000, about 90% being Quakers; but by 1785 the fleet had been shattered, 134 ships being destroyed or captured during the war.
In the 16th century we find faith cures recorded of Luther and other reformers, in the next century of the Baptists, Quakers and other Puritan sects, and in the 18th century the faith healing of the Methodists in this country was paralleled by Pietism in Germany, which drew into its ranks so distinguished a man of science as Stahl (1660-1734) In the 19th century Prince Hohenlohe-WaldenburgSchillingsfiirst, canon of Grosswardein, was a famous healer on the continent; the Mormons and Irvingites were prominent among English-speaking peoples; in the last quarter of the 19th century faith healing became popular in London, and Bethshan homes were opened in 1881, and since then it has found many adherents in England.
There, in Phrygia, the cry for a strict Christian life was reinforced by the belief in a new and final outpouring of the Spirit - a coincidence which has been observed elsewhere in Church history - as, for instance, among the early Quakers and in the Irvingite movement.
The legislation against Baptists (about 1644-1678) and the persecution of the Quakers (especially 1656-1662) partook of the brutality of the time, including scourging, boring of tongues, cutting of ears and in rare cases capital punishment.
His parents were Quakers, and he himself for many years was in communion with the (Darbyite) Plymouth Brethren, but afterwards became a Presbyterian.
In many ways they have thus a close resemblance to the Quakers or Society of Friends.
About eighteen months after they arrived in Canada the Doukhobors sent the Society of Friends a collective letter in which they sincerely thanked the English and American Friends for all the generous help of every kind they had received at their hands, but begged the Quakers to cease sending them any more pecuniary support, as they were now able to stand on their own feet, and therefore felt it right that any further help should be directed to others who were more in need of it.
The first act of parliament that relieved dissenters (other than Jews and Quakers) from these restrictions was the Marriage Act of 1836.
His parents were Quakers in poor circumstances, and gave him very little education.
GEORGE FOX (1624-1691), the founder of the "Society of Friends" or "Quakers," was born at Drayton, Leicestershire, in July 1624.
He ordered Fox's liberation, and in November 1657 issued a general order directing that Quakers should be treated with leniency, and be discharged from confinement.
His father and mother were Quakers, and they did not think it was right to spend money for such things.