The first settlers on the site of the city were several Quaker families who came in the 18th century.
From the beginning of the 18th century the zeal of the Quaker body abated.
MARIA MITCHELL (1818-1889), American astronomer, was born of Quaker ancestry on the island of Nantucket on the 1st of August 1818.
C. 4), which were strained to cover the case of itinerant Quaker preachers.
Kilham's wife (Hannah Spurr, 1 77418 3 2), whom he married only a few months before his death, became a Quaker, and worked as a missionary in the Gambia and at Sierra Leone; she reduced to writing several West African vernaculars.
More than one-fourth of the value of its manufactures is in Quaker Oats and other food preparations; among those of less importance are lumber and planing-mill products, foundry and machineshop products, furniture, patent medicines, pumps, carriages and waggons, packed meats and agricultural implements.
The meetings for business further concern themselves with arrangements for spreading the Quaker doctrine, and for carrying out various religious, philanthropic and social activities not neces sarily confined to the Society of Friends.
The offices known to the Quaker body are: (1) that of minister (the term " office " is not strictly applicable, see above as to " recording "); (2) of elder, whose duty it is " to encourage and help young ministers, and advise others as they, in the wisdom of God, see occasion "; (3) of overseer, to whom is especially entrusted that duty of Christian care for and interest in one another which Quakers recognize as obligatory in all the members of a church.
The principal churches, in order of their membership were, in 1890, the Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, Protestant Episcopal, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Quaker and Lutheran.
Barclay, Inner Life of Religious Societies of the Commonwealth (1876) for a good account of Mennonite anticipations of Quaker views and practices; F.
His dress, the simplicity of his external appearance, the friendly meekness of the old man, and the apparent humility of the Quaker, procured for Freedom a mass of votaries among the court circles who used to be alarmed at its coarseness and unsophisticated truths.
The Paxton massacre marked the close of Quaker supremacy and the beginning of the predominance of the Scotch-Irish pioneers.
Hermon Husband (c. 1724-1795) was the chief agitator of measures for relief, but, since, as a Quaker, he discouraged violence, the cause was left without a recognized leader.
In 1652 a number of people in Westmorland and north Lancashire who had separated from the common national worship,' came under the influence of Fox, and it was this community (if it can be so called) at Preston Patrick which formed the nucleus of the Quaker church.
They left behind them, however, many influential members, who may be described as a middle party, and who strove to give a more " evangelical " tone to Quaker doctrine.
P. Hallowell, The Quaker Invasion of Massachusetts (1887), and The Pioneer Quakers (1887).
The record of the journey across Africa, with its surprising anticipations of subsequent discoveries, yields in interest to no work of the kind known to us; and the semipiratical Quaker who accompanies Singleton in his buccaneering expeditions is a most life-like character.
There is also a Quaker who plays a very creditable part in Roxana (1724), and Defoe seems to have been well affected to the Friends.
THOMAS MIFFLIN (1744-1800), American soldier and politician, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 10th of January 1744, of Quaker parentage.
"HERBERT CLARK HOOVER (1874-), American mining engineer and public official, was born of Quaker parentage on a farm at West Branch, Ia., Aug.
See also " Quaker " in the index to Masson's Life of Milton.
29) at Quaker Hill, at the N.
Kildare, and educated first at the Quaker school at Carlow and afterwards at Rome, where he joined the Urban College of the Propaganda and, after passing a brilliant course, was ordained in 1829.
The chief features of Pennsylvania history in colonial days were the predominance of Quaker influence, the heterogeneous character of the population, liberality in matters, of religion, and the fact that it was the largest and the most 7successful of proprietary provinces.
The chief features of this epoch -the Antinomian dissensions, the Quaker and Baptist persecutions, the witchcraft delusion (four witches were executed in Boston, in 1648, 165r, 1656, 1688) &c.-are referred to in the article Massachusetts.
William Rogers set forth his views in The Christian Quaker, 1680; the story of the dissension is told, to some extent, in The Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth, by R.
Of late years the stringency of the Quaker discipline has been relaxed: the peculiarities of dress and language have been abandoned; marriage with a non-member or between two nonmembers is now possible at a Quaker meeting-house; and marriage elsewhere has ceased to involve exclusion from the body.
BENJAMIN RUSH (1745-1813), American physician, was born in Byberry township, near Philadelphia, on a homestead founded by his grandfather, a Quaker gunsmith, who had followed Penn from England in 1683.
Lord Ashley now retired into Holland, where he became acquainted with Le Clerc, Bayle, Benjamin Furly, the English Quaker merchant, at whose house Locke had resided during his stay at Rotterdam, and probably Limborch and the rest of the literary circle of which Locke had been a cherished and honoured member nine or ten years before.
EDWARD GIBBON WAKEFIELD (1796-1862), British colonial statesman, was born in London on the 10th of March 1796, of an originally Quaker family.
Under the Quaker Act of 1662 and the Conventicle Act of 1664 a number were transported out of England, and under the last-named act and that of 1670 (the second Conventicle Act) hundreds of households were despoiled of all their goods.
The Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Acts of 1664 and 1670, designed to enforce attendance at church, and inflicting severe penalties on those attending other religious gatherings, were responsible for the most severe persecution of all.
Voltaire (Dictionnaire Philosoplzique, " Quaker," " Toleration ") described the body, which attracted his curiosity, his sympathy and his sneers, with all his brilliance.
Other causes have been at work modifying the Quaker society.
In fact, the number of men, either Quakers or of Quaker origin and proclivities, who occupy positions of influence in English life is large in proportion to the small body with which they are connected.
Of late years, in certain of their meetings on Sunday evening, it has become customary for part of the time to be occupied with set addresses for the purpose of instructing the members of the congregation, or of conveying the Quaker message to others who may be present, all their meetings for worship being freely open to the public. In a few meetings hymns are occasionally sung, very rarely as part of any arrangement, but almost always upon the request of some individual for a particular hymn appropriate to the need of the congregation.
The outward beginning of this movement was the Manchester Conference of 18 95, a turning-point in Quaker history.
Thomas, The History of Friends in America (4th edition, 1905); Isaac Sharpless, History of Quaker Government in Pennsylvania (1898, 1899); R.
The present organization of the Quaker church is essentially democratic; every person born of Quaker parents is a member, and, Periodic together with those who have been admitted on their own Periodic request, is entitled to take part in the business assemblies ."
A genuine vein of philanthropy has always existed in the Quaker body.
It is noteworthy that Quaker efforts for the education of the poor and philanthropy in general, though they have always been Christian in character, have not been undertaken primarily for the purpose of bringing proselytes within the body, and have not done so to any great extent.
Early in the 18th century William Sewel, a Dutch Quaker, wrote a history of the Society and published an English translation; modern (small) histories have been written by T.
For an exposition of Quakerism on its spiritual side many of the poems by Whittier may be referred to, also Quaker Strongholds and Light Arising by Caroline E.
The social life of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th is portrayed in Records of a Quaker Family, the Richardsons of Cleveland, by Mrs Boyce, and The Diaries of Edward Pease, the Father of English Railways, edited by Sir A.
The periodicals issued (not officially) in connexion with the Quaker body are The Friend (weekly), The British Friend (monthly), The 1 See A History of the Adult School Movement by J.
The British pursued, and the next day there was a severe engagement in which the Americans were driven from Turkey and Quaker Hills.
After a year and a half in London, Franklin was persuaded by a friend named Denham, a Quaker merchant, to return with him to America and engage in mercantile business; he accordingly gave up printing, but a few days before sailing he received a tempting offer to remain and give lessons in swimming - his feats as a swimmer having given him considerable reputation - and he says that he might have consented " had the overtures been sooner made."
More than once mobs freed Quaker prisoners.
On the Quaker Persecution: R.
P. Hallowell, The Quaker Invasion of Massachusetts (Boston, 1883; rev. ed., 1887).
JOHN WOOLMAN (1720-1772), American Quaker preacher, was born in Northampton, Burlington county, New Jersey, in August 17 20.
John Fiske, The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America (2 vols., Boston, 1900) is admirable in its generalizations but unreliable in its details.
Before the Seven Years' War the Quakers dominated the government, but from that time until the failure of the Whisky Insurrection (17g4) the more belligerent Scotch-Irish (mostly Presbyterians) were usually in the ascendancy, the reasons being the growing numerical strength of the Scotch-Irish and the increasing dissatisfaction with Quaker neglect of means of defending the province.
WILLIAM COOKWORTHY (1705-1780), English potter, famous for his discovery of the existence of china-clay and chinastone in Cornwall, and as the first manufacturer of a porcelain similar in nature to the Chinese, from English materials, was born at Kingsbridge, Devon, of Quaker parents who were in humble circumstances.
George Fox, the Quaker, wrote to " All Friends everywhere that have Indians or blacks, to preach the Gospel to them .and their servants."
Among the Church organizations are: the First (Unitarian; originally Trinitarian Congregational), which dates from 1629 and was the first Congregational church organized in America; the Second or East Church (Unitarian) organized in 1718; the North Church (Unitarian), which separated from the First in 1772; the Third or Tabernacle (Congregational), organized in 1735 from the First Church; the South (Congregational), which separated from the Third in 1774; several Baptist churches; a Quaker society, with a brick meeting-house (1832); St Peter's, the oldest Episcopalian church in Salem, with a building of English Gothic erected in 1833, and Grace Church (1858).
In 1811 he co-operated with William Allen (1770-1843), quaker and chemist, in a periodical called the Philanthropist.
ALEXANDER MITCHELL PALMER (1872-), American politician, was born of Quaker parentage at Moosehead, Pa., May 4 1872.
His father, Jacob Bright, was a much-respected Quaker, who had started a cottonmill at Rochdale in 1809.
In the middle region between them religion had a large share in promoting the formation of Pennsylvania, which was founded by the Quaker William Penn.
In 1675 John Fenwicke, an English Quaker, entered the Delaware river and founded the first permanent English settlement on the Delaware (which he called Salem).
It was only gradually that the Quaker community clothed itself with an organization.