Pulmonaria, Hepatica, Scrophularia, and others.
The leaves, which - are generally alternate, are usually entire and narrow: the radical leaves in some genera, as Pulmonaria (lungwort) and Cynoglossum, differ in form from the stem-leaves, being generally broader and sometimes heart-shaped.
Borage and Pulmonaria, were formerly used in medicine, and the roots yield purple or brown dyes, as in Alkanna tinctoria (alkanet).
Orders: Pulmonaria and Trachearia.
Formerly also Sticta pulmonaria was much employed in brewing instead of hops, and it is said that a Siberian monastery was much celebrated for its beer which was flavoured with the bitter principle of this species.
The chief of those employed for one or other, and in some cases for several, of these purposes were Cladonia pyxidata, Usnea barbata, Ramalina farinacea, Evernia prunastri, Cetraria islandica, Sticta pulmonaria, Parmelia saxatilis, Xanthoria parietina and Pertusaria amara.