It is vain, therefore, to look for clearly defined and systematic presentations of the idea among ancient writers.
It should be noticed that this (very common) psychological interpretation of "conception" differs from the metaphysical or general philosophical definition given above, in so far as it includes mental presentations in which the universal is not specifically distinguished from the particulars.
The impulse to migrate, that is to say, the calling forth of specific activities by climatal or other presentations, appears to be instin tive; whether the direction of migration is in like manner instinctive is a matter of uncertainty; and, if it be instinctive, the nature of the stimuli and the manner in which they are hereditarily linked with responsive acts is unexplained.
His political and economical pamphlets are almost unmatched as clear presentations of the views of their writer.
But, generally speaking, there was no heart in preaching, sermons were unimpassioned, stilted and formal presentations of ethics and apologetics, seldom delivered extempore.
We find in him other corrections or new presentations of views previously accepted, and some useful suggestions for the improvement of nomenclature.
His presentations of character and motives, whether truthful or not, are undeniably fine; but his doctrine that there should be "no theorizing" about history tended to narrow his survey, and consequently he sometimes, as in his remarks on the foreign policy of Elizabeth, seems to misapprehend the tendencies of a period on which he is writing.
No less rapid has been the change in America during the same period, nor less numerous the scholars well equipped to pursue the detailed investigation involved in critical study or those who have shown ability in popular presentations of the critical standpoint.'
The chief presentations of the methods of the American school of invertebrate palaeontologists are to be found in A.
That in knowing objects certain thoughts are implied which are not presentations or their copies is at times dimly seen by Berkeley himself; but he was content to propound a question with regard to those notions, and to look upon them as merely Locke's ideas of relation.
These three "Farmer's Letters" - a fourth was advertised but apparently was never published - were forcible presentations of the pro-British claim,, written in a plain, hard-headed style; their authorship was long in question, but it is certain that Seabury claimed them in England in 1783 when he was seeking episcopal consecration.
It is almost superfluous to remark, first, that Hume here deliberately gives up his fundamental principle that ideas are but the fainter copies of impressions, for it can never be maintained that order of disposition is an impression, and, secondly, that he fails to offer any explanation of the mode in which coexistence and succession are possible elements, of cognition in a conscious experience made up of isolated presentations and representations.
We regard as successive presentations of one thing the resembling feelings which are experienced in succession.
It thus presents to all vacancies caused by simoniacal presentations, or by the incumbent having been presented to a bishopric or in benefices belonging to a bishopric when the see is vacant by the bishop's death, translation or deprivation.
Honours fell thick upon him in the form of addresses from the city of London and many large towns, and of presentations of freedom from various corporate bodies.
It is argued that there must be in the mind an enduring, primary faculty whereby we retain, compare and group the presentations of sense.
Presbyteries in various parts of the country were still disposed to disregard the presentations of lay patrons, and to settle the men desired by the people; but legal decisions had shown that if they acted in this way their nominee, while legally minister of the parish, could not claim the stipend.
By the new policy inaugurated by Dr William Robertson (1721-1793), which led to the second secession, the assembly compelled presbyteries to give effect to presentations, and in a long series of disputed settlements the " call," though still held essential to a settlement, was less and less regarded, until it was declared that it was not necessary, and that the church courts were bound to induct any qualified presentee.
The presbyteries ceased to disregard presentations, and lay patronage came to be regarded as part of the order of things.
He holds that nothing exists except presentations, which are not merely sensational, and have an objective aspect no less than a subjective.
Another provision, which in spite of all opposition obtained a permanent place in English law, declared that all suits even between clerk and clerk concerning advowsons and presentations should be tried in the king's court.
Herbart apperception is that process by which an aggregate or "mass" of presentations becomes systematized (apperceptionssystem) by the accretion of new elements, either sense-given or product of the inner workings of the mind.
Practically it became the rule to regard suits regarding land, or presentations to beneflees, as pertaining to the kings court, while those regarding probate, marriage and divorce fell to the ecclesiastical tribunal.
And even when the presentations before the mind are so clear that assent to their truth cannot be refused, the possibility of assenting still rests with the will, which can refuse to attend to any presentation, or can refuse assent with the sole motive of proving its freedom.
In his Psychology Herbart rejects altogether the doctrine of mental faculties as one refuted by his metaphysics, and tries to show that all psychical phenomena whatever result from the action and interaction of elementary ideas or presentations (Vorstellungen).
The soul being one and simple, its separate acts of self-preservation or primary presentations must be simple too, and its several presentations must become united together.
But otherwise there ensues a conflict in which the opposed presentations comport themselves like forces and mutually suppress or obscure each other.
The first must obviously be as small as possible; thus for two totally-opposed presentations a and b, of which a is the greater, the inhibendum = b.
For a given degree of opposition this burden will be shared between the conflicting presentations in the inverse ratio of their strength.
Such total exclusion from consciousness is, however, manifestly impossible with only two presentations,' though with three or a greater number the residual value of one may even be negative.
As the presentations yield to the pressure, the pressure itself diminishes, so that the velocity of sinking decreases, i.e.
From this law it follows, for example, that equilibrium is never quite obtained for those presentations which continue above the threshold of consciousness, while the rest 1 Thus, taking the case above supposed, the share of the inhibendum falling to the smaller presentation b is the fourth term of the pro zab portion a+-b: a:: b: a + b; and so b's remainder is b - ad-b - a-f-b' which only =0 when a = oe .
More important is the law according to which a presentation freed from inhibition and rising anew into consciousness tends to raise the other presentations with which it is combined.
Suppose two presentations p and united by the residua r and p; then the amount of p's "help" to is r, the portion of which appropriated by is given by the ratio p: and thus the initial help is 7p.
Emotions and volitions, he holds, are not directly self-preservations of the soul, as our presentations are, but variable states of such presentations resulting from their interaction when above the threshold of consciousness.
Thus when some presentations tend to force a presentation into consciousness, and others at the same time tend to drive it out, that presentation is the seat of painful feeling; when, on the other hand, its entrance is favoured by all, pleasure results.
Desires are presentations struggling into consciousness against hindrances, and when accompanied by the supposition of success become volitions.
Self-consciousness is the result of an interaction essentially the same in kind as that which takes place when a comparatively simple presentation finds the field of consciousness occupied by a longformed and well-consolidated "mass" of presentations - as, e.g.