Accordingly, when he said that a substance is a subject, he meant a real subject; and when he said that a universal species or genus is a predicate, he meant that it is a real predicate belonging to a real subject, which is always some individual substance of the kind.
It is remarkable that in Barbara, and therefore in many scientific deductions, to think the quantity of the predicate is not to the point either in the premises or in the conclusion; so that to quantify the propositions, as Hamilton proposes, would be to express more than a rational man thinks and judges.
This man or this animal, because such a primary substance is not a predicate; but that the species man or the genus animal is the substance which is the predicate of Socrates the subject (Cat.
The symbol of equality (=) is not the same as the copula (is); it means " is equal to," where " equal to " is part of the predicate, leaving " is " as the copula.
Combinatorics was introduced by Ramsey to solve a special case of the decision problem for the first-order predicate calculus.
The question then arises, what sort of substance can be predicate; and in the Categories Aristotle gave an answer, which would have been impossible, if he had not, under Plato's influence, accepted both the unity and the substantiality of the universal.
By its subject and predicate are one and the same thing which cannot exist apart from itself.
In the Analytics he took the final step of originating the logical analysis of the proposition as premise into subject and predicate as terms mediated by the copula, and analysed the syllogism into these elements.
Judgment is the act which refers an ideal content recognized as such to a reality beyond the act, predicating an idea of a reality, a what of a that; so that the subject is reality and the predicate the meaning of an idea, while the judgment refers the idea to reality by an identity of content (Bradley and Bosanquet).
But even the normal proposition in the syllogistic form tertii adjacentis, with subject, predicate and copula, is seldom a complete expression of the judgment.
The words introducing this form (6Tav bE TO '&TL Tptrov irpoo-KaTnyopijTac, chap. so, s 9 b s 9), which are the origin of the phrase tertii adjacentis, disengage the verb of being (g un) partially but not entirely, because they still treat it as an extra part of the predicate, and not as a distinct copula.
It is the analysis of an aggregate idea (Gesammtvorstellung) into subject and predicate; based on a previous association of ideas, on relating and comparing, and on the apperceptive synthesis of an aggregate idea in consequence; but itself consisting in an apperceptive analysis of that aggregate idea; and requiring will in the form of apperception or attention (Wundt).
His sales plan was predicated on the notion of meetings: contact and exchange.
It is evident that in the category of substance, as Aristotle perceived, substance is predicate of substance, e.g.
Subject (inroKEI b tevov) originally meant a real thing which is the basis of something, and was used by Aristotle both for a thing to which something belongs and for a name of which another is asserted: accordingly " predicate " (KaT, yopouµ€vov) came with him to mean something really belonging (uirapxov) to a substance as real subject, as well as a name capable of being asserted of a name as a nominal subject.
- Another example of Aristotle's gradual desertion of Plato is exhibited by the De Interpretatione as compared with the Prior Analytics, and it shows another gradual history in Aristotle's philosophy, namely, the development of subject, predicate and copula, in his logic.
"This absolute," says he, "is experience, because that is really what we mean when we predicate or speak of anything."
The indicative use was soon given up and the pseudo-participle was employed only as predicate, especially indicating a state; e.g.
(5) When a judgment is expressed by a proposition, the proposition expresses the results of the division by two terms, subject and predicate, and by the copula that what is signified by the subject is what is signified by the predicate; and the proposition is a combination of the two terms; e.g.
Hence " negative theology," which ascends from the creature to God by dropping one after another every determinate predicate, leads us nearest to the: truth.
A genus, they said, is essentially something which is predicated of a subject; but a thing cannot be a predicate (res enim non praedicatur).
" Substance," says he (chap. 5), " which is properly, primarily and especially so called, is that which is neither a predicate of a subject nor inherent in a subject; for example, a particular man, or a particular horse.
Again, according to both works, an individual substance is a subject, a universal its predicate; and they have in common the Aristotelian metaphysics, which differs greatly from the modern logic of subject and predicate.
In other words, to him subject meant real as well as nominal subject, and predicate meant real as well as nominal predicate; whereas modern logic has gradually reduced both to the nominal terms of a proposition.
It is true that the work gives only a negative definition of the inherent, namely, that it does not inhere as a part and cannot exist apart from that in which it inheres (1 a 24-25), and it admits that what is inherent may sometimes also be a predicate (chap. 5, 2 a 27-34).
But even so the Categories concludes that everything is either a predicate of, or inherent in, a substance; and the view that this colour belongs to this substance only in the sense of being in it, not of it, leaves the impression that, like a Platonic form, it is an entity rather in than of an individual substance, though even in the Categories Aristotle is careful to deny its separability.
On the other hand, in the Metaphysics (Z 13), he distinctly denies that any universal can be a substance, on the ground that a substance is a subject, whereas a universal is a predicate and a belonging of a subject, from which it follows as he says that no universal is a substance, and no substance universal.
Predicate and subject, combined or divided by being and not being (Pr.
The universal (To Ka06Xov) is real only as one predicate belonging to many individual substances: it is therefore not a substance.
The species man, is not predicate of many individuals (b) Kara IroXXi v, Post.
All men; and not a whole species, but only an individual, is a predicate of such individual, e.g.