HERACLIDES PONTICUS, Greek philosopher and miscellaneous writer, born at Heraclea in Pontus, flourished in the 4th century B.C. He studied philosophy at Athens under Speusippus, Plato and Aristotle.
NEREUS, in Greek mythology, the eldest son of Pontus and Gaea, and father of the fifty Nereids.
In the Black Sea they exploited the shores of Pontus and Scythia, whose products they exchanged for textiles spun from the wool of their own country.
During what is called the Second Mithradatic War, Murena invaded Pontus without any good reason in 83, but was defeated in 82.
2 The elders were appointed to teach and rule; 3 the deacons to minister to the poor.4 There were elders in the church at Jerusalem,' and in the church at Ephesus; 6 Paul and Barnabas appointed elders in the cities of Lycaonia and Pisidia; 7 Paul left Titus in Crete to appoint elders in every city; 8 the elders amongst the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia received a special exhortation by Peter.° These elders were rulers, and the only rulers in the New Testament Church.
18) to Zeno, the son of the king of Pontus (Tac. Ann.
An electuary of opium, known as Mithradatum, was invented by Mithradates VI., king of Pontus, who lived in constant fear of being poisoned, and tested the effects of poisons on criminals, and is said to have taken poisons and their antidotes every day in the year.
Of Pontus restore Cappadocia to Ariobarzanes, one of Rome's dependants in Asia.
Gumenek), an ancient city of Pontus, said to have been colonized from Comana in Cappadocia.
Bishop, provincial synod, exarch of the diocese, patriarch of Constantinople (obviously the council could not here have been legislating for the entire church); forbidding clerics to be running to Constantinople with complaints, without the consent of their respective bishops; (7) confirming the possession of rural parishes to those who had actually administered them for thirty years, providing for the adjudication of conflicting claims, and guaranteeing the integrity of metropolitan provinces; (8) confirming the third canon of the second ecumenical council, which accorded to Constantinople equal privileges ('oa 7fp€ose7a) with Rome, and the second rank among the patriarchates, and, in addition, granting to Constantinople patriarchal jurisdiction over Pontus, Asia and Thrace.
12) the epistle from Pontus (Ex Ponto, iv.
Of Pontus, with large sums of money for bribing the senate; compromising revelations were made by Saturninus, who insulted the ambassadors.
In Cappadocia two Persian houses, relics of the old aristocracy of Achaemenian days had carved out principalities, one of which became the kingdom of Pontus and the other the kingdom of Cappadocia (in the narrower sense); the former regarding Mithradates (281-266) as its founder, the latter being the creation of the second Ariarathes (?302-?281).
Syria, Pontus, Lydia, Galatia, and above all Thrace were sources of supply.
BLACK SEA (or EuxINE; anc. Pontus Euxinus), 1 a body of water lying almost entirely between the latitudes 41° and 45° N., but extending to about 47° N.
Ancient Amasia has left little trace of itself except on the castle rock, on the left of the river, where the acropolis walls and a number of splendid rock-cut tombs, described by Strabo as those of the kings of Pontus, can be seen.
Amasia rose into historical importance after the time of Alexander as the cradle of the power of Pontus; but the last king to reign there was the father of Mithradates Eupator "The Great."
(1) A vilayet of Asia Minor which includes Paphlagonia and parts of Pontus and Galatia.
ARIOBARZANES, the name of three ancient kings or satraps of Pontus, and of three kings of Cappadocia and a Persian satrap.
Of Pontus and his power was broken.
PONTUS, a name applied in ancient times to extensive tracts of country in the north-east of Asia Minor bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the Main), by the Greeks.
Under the last king, Mithradates Eupator, commonly called the Great, the realm of Pontus included not only Pontic Cappadocia but alsd the seaboard from the Bithynian frontier to Colchis, part of inland Paphlagonia, and Lesser Armenia (see under MrTHRADATES).
With the destruction of this kingdom by Pompey in 64 B.C., the meaning of the name Pontus underwent a change.
Part of the kingdom was now annexed to the Roman Empire, being united with Bithynia in a double province called "Pontus and Bithynia": this part included (possibly from the first, but certainly from about 40 B.C. onwards) only the seaboard between Heracleia (Eregli) and Amisus (Samsun), the ora Pontica.
But it was also frequently used to denote (in whole or part) that portion of the old Mithradatic kingdom which lay between the Halys (roughly) and the borders of Colchis, Lesser Armenia, Cappadocia and Galatia - the region properly designated by the title "Cappadocia towards the Pontus," which was always the nucleus of the Pontic kingdom.
19-20), himself a native of the country, as Pontus in the strict sense of the term (Geogr.
The rest of the interior was partitioned by Pompey amongst the inland cities, almost all of which were founded by him, and, according to one view, was included together with the seaboard west of Amisus and the corner of northeast Paphlagonia possessed by Mithradates in his new province Pontus-Bithynia.
In any case, during the years following 40 B.C. all inland Pontus was handed over, like north-east Paphlagonia, to native dynasts.
After the battle of Actium (31 B.C.) Augustus restored Amisus as a "free city" to the province of Bithynia-Pontus, but made no other serious change.
To distinguish this district from the province Pontus and Polemon's Pontus, it was henceforth called Pontus galaticus (as being the first part attached to Galatia).
64-65, and distinguished by the title of Pontus polemoniacus, which survived for centuries.
[But the simple name Pontus, hitherto commonly used to designate Polemon's realm, is still employed to denote this district by itself or in conjunction with Pontus Galaticus, where the context makes the meaning clear (e.g.
64) was annexed the remaining eastern part of Pontus, which formed part of Polemon's realm but was attached to the province Cappadocia and distinguished by the epithet cappadocicus.
These three districts formed distinct administrative divisions within the provinces to which they were attached, with separate capitals Amasia, Neocaesarea and Trapezus; but the first two were afterwards merged in one, sometimes called Pontus mediterraneus, with Neocaesarea as capital, probably when they were definitively transferred (about A.D.
295), the Pontic districts were divided up between four provinces of the dioecesis pontica: (1) Paphlagonia, to which was attached most of the old province Pontus; (2) Diospontus, re-named Helenopontus by Constantine, containing the rest of the province Pontus and the adjoining district, eight cities in all (including Sinope, Amisus and Zela) with Amasia as capital; (3) Pontus Polemoniacus, containing Comana, Polemonium, Cerasus and Trapezus with Neocaesarea as capital; and (4) Armenia Minor, five cities, with Sebasteia, as capital.
Christianity was introduced into the province Pontus (the Ora pontica) by way of the sea in the 1st century after Christ and was deeply rooted when Pliny governed the province (A.D.
Pontus de Tyard >>
ST GREGORY (c. 213-c. 270), surnamed in later ecclesiastical tradition Thaumaturgus (the miracle-worker), was born of noble and wealthy pagan parents at Neocaesarea in Pontus, about A.D.
264-265), which investigated and condemned the heresies of Paul of Samosata; and the rapid spread in Pontus of a Trinitarianism approaching the Nicene type is attributed in large measure to the weight of his influence.
Though deserted by the Khazars, with whom he had made an alliance upon entering into Pontus, he gained a decisive advantage by a brilliant march across the Armenian highlands into the Tigris plain, and a hard-fought victory over Chosroes' general, Shahrbaraz, in which Heraclius distinguished himself by his personal bravery.
He finds that materials fail for Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt.
They went through Thrace, visiting Athens, Bithynia, Galatia, Pontus, Cappadocia and Cilicia, to Antioch, Jerome observing and making notes as they went.
Of Samsun, was, next to Sinope, the most flourishing of the Greek settlements on the Euxine, and under the kings of Pontus it was a rich trading town.
During part of that time Pliny was imperial legate in the provinces of Bithynia and Pontus, and in constant communication with Trajan.
Cornelius Sulla defeated the army of Mithradates VI., king of Pontus, near Chaeroneia.
While he was still a child, the family removed to Pontus; but he soon returned to Cappadocia to live with his mother's relations, and seems to have been brought up by his grandmother Macrina.
After this we find him at the head of a convent near Arnesi in Pontus, in which his mother Emilia, now a widow, his sister Macrina and several other ladies, gave themselves to a pious life of prayer and charitable works.
10 Individuals, too, adopted zodiacal emblems. Capricornus was impressed upon the coins of Augustus, Libra on those ' of Pythodoris, queen of Pontus; a sultan of Iconium displayed Leo as his " horoscope " and mark of sovereignty; Stephen of England chose the protection of Sagittarius.
At the council of Constantinople (381) the bishop of Constantinople or New Rome was ranked next after the bishop of Rome (canon 3), and at the council of Chalcedon (451) he was given authority over the churches of the political dioceses of Pontus, Asia and Thrace (canon 28).
But the last king, Nicomedes III., was unable to maintain himself against Mithradates of Pontus, and, after being restored to his throne by the Roman senate, he bequeathed his kingdom by will to the Romans (74 B.C.).