On Christmas Island the phosphate has been quarried to depths of 100 ft.
Mitscherlich, in the case of the acid phosphate and acid arsenate of potassium, KH 2 P(As)04, who adopted the term isomorphism, and regarded phosphorus and arsenic as isomorphously related elements.
The acid renders it available as a manure by converting the calcium phosphate, Ca 3 P 2 O 8, that it contains into the soluble monocalcium salt, CaH 4 P 2 O 8, or "superphosphate."
The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).
This salt gives the corresponding chloride and fluoride with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, and the phosphate, Pb(HP04)2, with phosphoric acid.
From that time the history of Bona is one of industrial development, greatly stimulated since 1883 by the discovery of the phosphate beds at Tebessa.
It has been estimated that 500,000 tons of phosphate were obtained in Aruba, 1,000,000 tons from Curacoa since the deposits were discovered in 1870, and Christmas Island in 1907 yielded 290,000 tons.
The " Challenger " and other oceanographic expeditions have shown that on the bottom of the deep sea concretions of phosphate are now gathering around the dead bodies of fishes lying in the oozes; consequently the formation of the concretions may have been carried on simultaneously with the deposition of the strata in which they occur.
Other kinds not distinctly hard and consisting of less rich phosphatic limestone, are known as " soft phosphate ": those found as smooth pebbles of variable colour are called " land pebble-phosphate," whilst the pebbles of the river-beds and old river-valleys, usually of dark colour, are distinguished as " river pebble-phosphate."
The state contains deposits of iron, gypsum, marl, phosphate, lignite, ochre, glass-sand, tripoli, fuller's earth, limestones and sandstones; and there are small gas flows in the Yazoo Delta.
The normal ortho-phosphate, Pb3(P04)2, is a white precipitate obtained by adding sodium phosphate to lead acetate; the acid phosphate, PbHPO 4, is produced by precipitating a boiling solution of lead nitrate with phosphoric acid; the pyrophosphate and meta-phosphate are similar white precipitates.
On these rounded hills occurs the deposit of phosphate of lime which gives the island its commercial value.
Among the rocks then obtained and submitted to Sir John Murray for examination there were detected specimens of nearly pure phosphate of lime, a discovery which eventually led, in June 1888, to the annexation of the island to the British crown.
Cattle, phosphate of lime and salt, manufactured from a lake in the interior, are the principal exports, the market for these being the neighbouring island of St Thomas.
Sfax was formerly the starting-point of a caravan route to Central Africa, but its inland trade now extends only to the phosphate region beyond Gafsa, reached by a railway which, after skirting the coast southwards from Sfax to Mahares, runs inland past Gafsa.
It may be in the form of an albumen crystal sometimes associated with a more or less spherical bodygloboid-composed of a combination of an organic substance with a double phosphate of magnesium and calcium.
Form an insoluble calcium soap. The interaction between the soaps, the phosphates and the carbonates which are brought by the blood and lymph to the part results in the weaker fatty acids being replaced by phosphoric and carbonic acid, and thus in the formation of highly insoluble calcium phosphate and carbonate deposits in the disorganized tissues.
It may contain from 55 to 62% of calcium phosphate, with about 7% of magnesium phosphate.
The first mode of occurrence is of little significance practically, for the crystalline rocks generally contain too little phosphate to be valuable, though occasionally an igneous rock may contain enough apatite to form an inferior fertilizing agent, e.g.
In South Carolina, where there are important deposits of phosphate, formerly more productive than at present, the " land rock " is worked near Charleston, and the " river rock " in the Coosaw River and other streams near Beaufort.
By the late 1800s, superphosphates were all the rage and eighty factories were manufacturing this high-yield fertilizer from coprolites (that is, phosphate-rich fossils of ancient animal dung—I kid you not).
Nine miles from Tebessa are the extensive phosphate quarries of Jebel Dyr, where is also an interesting megalithic village.
Cobalt ammonium phosphate, CoNH4PO 4.12H 2 0, is formed when a soluble cobalt salt is digested for some time with excess of a warm solution of ammonium phosphate.
VIVIANITE, a mineral consisting of hydrated iron phosphate Fe 3 (PO 4) 2 +8H 2 0, crystallizing in the monoclinic system.
Monazite, a phosphate of thorium and other rare earths, contains on the average about i cc. per gram.
Thus, prepared oystershells, coral, pearls, crabs' " eyes " and burnt hart's horn were regarded as specifics in different complaints, in ignorance of the fact that they all contain, as the chief ingredients, calcium phosphate and carbonate.
The phosphate thus produced forms an efficacious turnip manure, and is quite equal in value to that produced from any other source.
Thick, with beds of calcium phosphate, and a shale of half that thickness, were discovered by Hope Jones in the neighbourhood of Cwmgynen, about 16 m.
Voelcker yielded 34.92% tricalcium phosphate, a specimen of the shale 52.15% (Report of Brit.
Tampa is an important shipping point for naval stores and phosphate rock, for vegetables, citrus fruit and pineapples, raised in the vicinity, and for lumber, cattle and fuller's earth.
The principal minerals are rock phosphate and (recently more important) land and river pebble phosphate, found in scattered deposits in a belt on the " west coast " about 30 m.
Orthophosphoric acid, H3P04, a tribasic acid, is obtained by boiling a solution of the pentoxide in water; by oxidizing, red phosphorus with nitric acid, or yellow phosphorus under the surface of water by bromine or iodine; and also by decomposing a mineral phosphate with sulphuric acid.
(K,Na,NH 4)H 5 (PO 4)2, are also known; these may be regarded as composed of a monometallic phosphate with phosphoric acid, thus M'H 2 PO 4 H 3 PO 4.
All soluble orthophosphates give with silver nitrate a characteristic yellow precipitate of silver phosphate, Ag 3 PO 4, soluble in ammonia and in nitric acid.
Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.
- Those varieties of native calcium phosphate which are not distinctly crystallized, like apatite, but occur in fibrous, compact or earthy masses, often nodular, and more or less impure, are included under the general term phosphorite.
This mineral, known as Estremadura phosphate, occurs at Logrossan and Caceres, where it forms an important deposit in clay-slate.
Many of the impure substances thus utilized are not strictly phosphorite, but pass under such names as " rock-phosphate," or, when nodular, as " coprolite " (q.v.), even if not of true coprolitic origin.
In many deposits of iron ores found in connexion with igneous or metamorphic rocks small quantities of phosphate occur.
The Swedish, Norwegian, Ontario and Michigan mines yield ores of this kind; and though none of them can be profitably worked as a source of phosphate, yet on reducing the ore it may be retained in the slags, and thus rendered available for agriculture.
Sometimes the phosphate is found at the surface, but generally it is covered by alluvial sands and clays.
Phosphate mining began in South Carolina in 1868, and for twenty years that state was the principal producer.