Mehner patented heating the oxides of silicon, boron or magnesium with coal or coke in an electric furnace, and then passing in nitrogen, which forms, with the metal liberated by the action of the carbon, a readily decomposable nitride.
Hence processes have been patented in which the objects to be plated are suspended in revolving drums between the anodes, the rotation of the drum causing the constant renewal of surfaces and affording a burnishing action at the same time.
Sherard Cowper Coles patented a process in which, working with a high current density, a lead anode is used, and powdered zinc is kept suspended in the solution to maintain the proportion of zinc in the electrolyte, and so to guard against the gradual acidification of the bath.
The "Regency portable fountain," patented in 1825 by Charles Plinth, was the prototype of the modern siphon, from which it differed in having a stopcock in place of a spring valve.
A very similar system of wireless telegraphy was patented by Professor A.
Many different couplers of the Janney type are patented and made by different firms, but the tendency is to equip new cars with one of only four or five standard makes.
A large number of arrangements for carrying out the cracking process have been proposed and patented, probably the earliest directly bearing on the subject being that of James Young, who in 1865 patented his " Improvements in treating hydrocarbon oils."
The process patented by Dewar and Redwood in 1889 consists in the use of a suitable still and condenser in free communication with each other - i.e.
Fitzgerald patented a process in 1683 having for its purpose the "sweetening of sea-water."
End of Lake Champlain was granted to Colonel Philip Skene (1725-1810), who fought at Ticonderoga in 1758 and in 1759, and who established here in 1761 a settlement of about thirty families which he called Skenesborough and which was patented in 1765.
Of notice is that patented by E.
Who patented his process for the manufacture of paraffin in 1850.
The principle was patented, but the company owning the patent undertook to permit its free use by railway companies which were members of the Master Car Builders' Association, and thus threw open the underlying principle to competition.
Various arrangements have been proposed and patented for the continuous distillation of petroleum, in which crude oil is supplied to a range of stills as fast as the distillates pass off.
King patented filament electric lamps exhausted by the same methods.
The name " patent plate " arose from the fact that certain patented devices originated by James Chance of Birmingham first made it possible to polish comparatively thin glass in this way.
Its manufacture was introduced into England many years ago by Messrs Henry Tate & Sons, and they subsequently adopted and use now the improved process and apparatus patented in March 1890 by M Gustave Adant, a foreman sugar refiner of Brussels.
Ashcroft patented a process of dealing with complex ores of the well-known Broken Hill type, containing sulphides of silver, lead and zinc, but the system was abandoned after a long trial on a practical scale.
The shares, when made of the same material, required constant sharpening; this necessity was removed by the device, patented by Robert Ransome in 1803, of chilling and so hardening the under-surface of the share; the upper surface, which is soft, then wears away more quickly than the chilled part, whereby a sharp edge is always assured.
In 1878 Sir William Siemens patented a form of furnace' which is the type of a very large number of those designed by later inventors.
In 1885 the brothers Cowles patented a process for the electrothermal reduction of oxidized ores by exposure to an intense current of electricity when admixed with carbon in a retort.
Later in that year they patented a process for the reduction of aluminium by carbon, and in 1886 an electric furnace with sliding carbon rods passed through the end walls to the centre of a rectangular furnace.
Chaplet has patented a muffle or tube furnace, similar in principle, for use on a larger scale, with a number of electrodes placed above and below the muffle-tube.
Among the earlier of the modern forms of apparatus which came into practical adoption are the inventions of Dr Normandy and of Chaplin of Glasgow, the apparatus of Rocher of Nantes, and that patented by Gall& and Mazeline of Havre.
Many modifications have been patented by Hermite, that of 1895 specifying the use of platinum gauze anodes, held in ebonite or other frames.
The same inventor has patented the application of electrolysed chlorides to the purification of starch by the oxidation of less stable organic bodies, to the bleaching of oils, and to the purification of coal gas, spirit and other substances.
Kellner, who in 1886 patented the use of cathode (caustic soda) and anode (chlorine) liquors in the manufacture of cellulose from wood-fibre, and has since evolved many similar processes, has produced an apparatus that has been largely used.
Kellner has also patented a "bleaching-block," as he terms it, consisting of a frame carrying parallel plates similar in principle to those last described.
The commercial process was patented in 1890 by MacArthur and Forrest, and is now in use all over the world.
The second process is one patented by Fritz Ullmann of Geneva, who utilizes chromic acid to oxidize the phosphuretted and sulphuretted hydrogen and absorb the ammonia, and this method of purification has proved the most successful in practice, the chromic acid being absorbed by kieselgiihr and the material sold under the name of "Heratol."
In the year before (1742) he had planned the " Pennsylvania fire-place," better known as the " Franklin stove," which saved fuel, heated all the room, and had the same principle as the hot-air furnace; the stove was never patented by Franklin, but was described in his pamphlet dated 1744.
Brunel, was preparing to put the plan to practical test when the discovery that it had already been patented caused him to abandon his intention, until about 1877.
In 1886, however, Castner replaced the carbonate by caustic soda, and materially cheapened the cost of production; but this method was discarded for an electrolytic one, patented by Castner in 1890.
Electrolytic processes had, in fact, been considered since 1851, when Charles Watt patented his method for the production of sodium and potassium from fused chlorides.
In 1893 Girard and Street patented a furnace and a process by which this transformation could be effected.
Acheson, in 1896, patented an application of his, carborundum process to graphite manufacture, and in 1899 the International Acheson Graphite Co.
The use of reflecting mirrors for the purpose of observing from cover is no novelty, and during the trench warfare of the Crimean War 1854-5 a device was patented which scarcely differs from the simple mirror periscope of the World War.
Grabau patented a method of reducing the simple fluoride of aluminium with sodium, and his process was operated at Trotha in Germany.
Cratzel patented a useless electrolytic process with fused cryolite or the double chloride as the raw material, and in 1886 Dr E.
The process of manufacture which now remains to be described was patented during 1886 and 1887 in the name of C. M.
In 1611 Simon Sturtevant patented the use of mineral coal for iron-smelting, and in 1619 Dud Dudley made with this coal both cast and wrought iron with technical success, but through the opposition of the charcoal iron-makers all of his many attempts were defeated.
These include the austenitic or gamma non-magnetic manganese steel, already patented b y Robert Hadfield in 1883, the first important known substance which combined great malleableness with great hardness, and the martensitic or beta " high speed tool steel " of White and Taylor, which retains its hardness and cutting power even at a red heat.
The city has a monument (1900) to John Gorrie (1803-1855), a physician who discovered the cold-air process of refrigeration in 1849 (and patented an ice-machine in 1850), as the result of experiments to lower the temperatures of fever patients.
Four years later Varley patented his artificial cable, which was the first near approach to a successful solution of the duplex problem on the principle now adopted.
James Bowman Lindsay of Dundee, between 1845 and 1854, reinvented and even patented Morse's method, and practically put the plan into operation for experimental purposes across the river Tay.
Edison also patented (U.S.A. Pat.
A telephone transmitter and a receiver on a novel plan were patented in July 1877 by Edison, shortly after the introduction of Bell's instruments.
The earliest instrument of this kind was the Hunnings transmitter, patented in 1878.
Borchers, trace it to the presence of oxide, produced, for example, either by the use of a solution containing a trace of basic salt of zinc (to prevent which the bath should be kept just - almost imperceptibly - acid), or by the presence of a more electro-negative metal, which, being co-deposited, sets up local action at the expense of the zinc. Many processes have been patented, the ore being acted upon by acid, and the resulting solution treated, by either chemical or electrolytic means, for the successive removal of the other heavy metals.
C. Hoepfner has patented several processes, in one of which (No.
Chaplin's apparatus, which was invented and patented later, has also since 1865 been sanctioned for use on emigrant, troop and passenger vessels.
The method of washing the gas with acid solutions of copper has been patented by A.
The scientific and practical value of this idea was soon seized upon by various inventors and others, and the number of patented systems of combining steel with concrete is constantly increasing.
Varley patented a type of influence machine which has been the parent of numerous subsequent forms (Brit.
Webster patented an improved process for making alumina, and the following year he organized the Aluminium Crown Metal Co.
The Maker of this earth but patented a leaf.