Peronospora, or to the young mycelia of epiphytic parasites, e.g.
Among recent advances having medical import in our knowledge of the Nematodes, the chief are those dealing with the parasites of the blood.
Gunther, " On the Structure and Affinities of Mnestra parasites Krohn; with a revision of the Classification of the Cladonemidae," Mitt.
These enenlies are as a rule so conspicuous that we do not look on their depredations as diseases, though the gradual deterioration of hay under the exhausting effects of root-parasites like Rhinanthus, and the onslaught of Cuscuta when unduly abundant, should teach us how unimportant to the definition the question of size may be.
In the early autumn of 1751 La Mettrie, one of the king's parasites, and a man of much more talent than is generally allowed, horrified Voltaire by telling him that Frederick had in conversation applied to him (Voltaire) a proverb about "sucking the orange and flinging away its skin," and about the same time the dispute with Maupertuis, which had more than anything else to do with his exclusion from Prussia, came to a head.
Of all parasites the one which by its mere presence is the most dangerous is the larva of Taenia echinococcus.
He creates the parasites that are vamps, which then kill humans.
Three distinct parasites, corresponding with the tertian,.
Birds are subject to malaria, which is caused by blood parasites akin to those in man and having a similar life-history.
As an appendix to the Oligochaeta, and possibly referable to that group, though their systematic position cannot at present be determined with certainty, are to be placed the Bdellodrilidae (Discodrilidae auct.), which are small parasites upon crayfish.
All the species are usually infested with Cercariae and Rediae, the larval forms of Trematode parasites of vertebrates.
The parasites, which cling to the intestinal mucous membrane, draw their nourishment from the blood-vessels of their host, and as they are found in hundreds in the body after death, the disorders of digestion, the increasing anaemia and the consequent dropsies and other cachectic symptoms are easily explained.
The parasites thrive in an environment of dirt, and the main lines of precaution are those dictated by sanitary science.
Many cancer-parasites have been described in cancerous growths, including bacteria, yeasts and protozoa, but the innumerable attempts made to demonstrate the causal infective organism have all completely failed.
The fact of this increased leucocytic activity during the early stages, or the whole course of infection by Cestodes, is indirect proof that these parasites do normally discharge toxic substances into their hosts.
The term "biting-lice" is sometimes given to these parasites, in allusion to the mandibulate character of their mouth-parts, which serves to distinguish them at once from the true lice of the order Rhynchota in which the jaws are haustellate.
The presence of these parasites seems at times to have little effect on the host, and men in whose system it is calculated there are some 40-50 million larvae have shown no signs of disease.
C. Claus, " Ober die Struktur der Muskelzellen and fiber den Korperbau von Mnestra parasites Krohn," Verhandl.
Mechanical injury from without, and against the entry of smaller parasites, such as fungi and bacteria, but also and especially to prevent the evaporation of water from within.
Fungal and phanerogamic parasites can make no use of stich substances as carbon dioxide, but draw elaborated products from the bodies of their hosts.
It was formerly the custom to regard as parasites all those pants which inserted roots or root-like organs into the tissues of other plants and absorbed the contents of the latter.
Hales (1727I 733) discussed the rotting of wounds, cankers, &c., but much had to be done with the microscope before any real progress was possible, and it is easily intelligible that until the theory of nutrition of the higher plants had been founded by the work of Ingenhouss, Priestley and De Saussure, the way was not even prepared for accurate knowledge of cryptogamic parasites and the diseases they induce.
Plants as agents of damage and disease may be divided into those larger forms which as weeds, epiphytes and so forth, do injury by dominating and shading more delicate species, or by gradually exhausting the soil, &c., and true parasites which actually live on and in the tissues of the plants.
Numerous Fungi, though conspicuous as parasites, cannot be said to do much individual injury to the host.
Irritation and hypertrophy of cells are common signs of the presence of parasites, as ovinced by the numerous malformations, galls, witches-brooms, &c., on diseased plants.
Roots are often flattened, twisted and otherwise distorted by mechanical obstacles; stems by excess of food in rich soils, the attacks of minute parasites, overgrowth by climbing plants, &c. Leaves are especially apt to vary, and although the formation of crests, pitchers, puckers, &c., must be put down to the results of abnormal development, it is often difficult to draw the line between teratological and merely varietal phenomena.
Cactaceae, Euphorbiaceae), of parasites, and of saprophytes.
On the 6th of November in that year he plainly saw the living parasites under the microscope in the blood of a malarial patient, and he shortly afterwards communicated his observations to the Paris Academie de Medecine.
The labours of Golgi, Marchiafava, Celli and others established the nature of the parasite and its behaviour in the blood; they proved the fact, guessed by Rasori so far back as 1846, that the periodical febrile paroxysm corresponds with the development of the organisms; and they showed that the different forms of malarial fever have their distinct parasites, and consequently fall into distinct groups,.
With regard to the parasites, which are the actual cause of malaria in man, an account of them is given under the heading of Parasitic Diseases, and little need be said about them here.
Apparently the parasites may remain quiescent in the blood for years and may cause relapses by fresh sporulation.
Many bird parasites belonging to the Rippoboscidae have naturally been carried about the world by their hosts, while other species, such as the house-fly, blow-fly and drone-fly, have in like manner been disseminated by human agency.
These parasites damage the hide, B FIG.
To begin with, 1 Though not relating exactly to our present theme, it would be improper to dismiss Nitzsch's name without reference to his extraordinary labours in investigating the insect and other external parasites of birds, a subject which as regards British species was subsequently elaborated by Denny in his Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (1842) and in his list of the specimens of British Anoplura in the collection of the British Museum.
PSOROSPERMIASIS, the medical term for a disease caused by the animal parasites known as psorosperms or gregarinidae, found in the liver, kidneys and ureters.
The assumption made was that (with the rare exception of parasites) all the change of structure through which the successive generations of animals have passed has been one of progressive elaboration.
The toxic actions produced in continued fevers, in certain chronic diseases, and by intestinal parasites largely aid in producing degeneration, emaciation and atrophy.
It is invariably the result of some cause acting generally, such as renal disease, valvular defect of the heart, or an impoverished state of the blood; while a mere oedema is usually dependent upon some local obstruction to the return of blood or lymph, or of both, the presence of parasites within the tissue, such as the filaria sanguinis hominis or trichina spiralis, or the poisonous bites of insects.
- The following works are the most important: Denny, Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (London, 18 43); Giebel, Insecta Epizoa (which contains the working-up of Nitzsch's posthumous materials; Leipzig, 1874); van Beneden, Animal Parasites (London, 1876); Piaget, Les Pediculines (Leiden, 1880); Megnin, Les Parasites et les maladies parasitaires (Paris, 1880); Neumann, Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals (1892); Osborn, Pediculi and Mallophaga affecting Man and the Lower Animals (Washington, 1891; U.S. Dept.
Of these the best known were: the Kolakes, in which he pilloried the spendthrift Callias, who wasted his substance on sophists and parasites; Maricas, an attack on Hyperbolus, the successor of Cleon, under a fictitious name; the Baptae, against Alcibiades and his clubs, at which profligate foreign rites were practised.
Hornell, "Parasites of the Pearl Oyster," Report on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar, The Royal Society (1904), pt.
"If that's the case, why on earth would I bother to free any of you parasites?" she asked, too tired to stand.
While the majority of the Nematodes are parasites, there are many that are never at any period of their life parasitic. These free-living forms are found everywhere - in salt and fresh water, in damp earth and moss, and among decaying substances; they are always minute in size, and like many other lower forms of life, are capable of retaining their vitality for a long period even when dried, which accounts for their wide distribution; this faculty is also possessed by certain of the parasitic Nematodes, especially by those which lead a free existence during a part of their life-cycle.
This migration is usually accompanied by a more or less complete metamorphosis.
As unlicensed blood-letters, certain land-leeches are among the most unpleasant of parasites that can be encountered in a tropical jungle.
The effects of these parasites have been mistaken for those of disease.
The remarkable medusa Mnestra parasites is ecto-para- '"' rp m sitic throughout life sr..
The dissemination of plant parasites is favored by many circumstances not always obvious, whence an air of mystery regarding epidemics was easily created in earlier times.
Following up this line of investigation, Major Ronald Ross in 1895 found that if a mosquito sucked blood containing the parasites they soon began to throw out flagellae, which broke away and became free; and in 1897 he discovered peculiar pigmented cells, which afterwards turned out to be the parasites of aestivo-autumnal malaria in an early stage of development, within the stomachwall of mosquitoes which had been fed on malarial blood.
In the other animals several parasites have been described by different observers, but the alternate hosts are not known.
They have a well-developed proboscis which is used as a suctorial organ; some are abyssal, but the majority are either commensals or parasites of Echinoderms.
- (I) Leuckart, The Parasites of Man (Edinburgh, 1886); (2) Braun, The Animal Parasites of Man (London, 1906); (3) Id., " Cestodes " in Braun's Klassen u.
(1894); (4) Shipley and Fearnsides, " Effects of Parasites," Journ.
(Monograph), and The Animal Parasites of Man (London, 1906); W.