In these we have (1) the evaporation from the damp delicate cell-walls into the intercellular spaces; (2) the imbibition by the cell-wall of water from the vacuole; (3) osmotic action, consequent upon the subsequent increased concentration of the cell sap, drawing water from the wood cells or vessels which abut upon the leaf parenchyma.
(3) The supply of water must be associated with the formation of osmotic substances in the cell, or it cannot be made to enter it.
Many marine Algae appear to be able to regulate their osmotic capacity to the surrounding medium; and T.
Doubtless, the excess of any soluble mineral salt or salts interferes with the osmotic absorption of the roots; and although calcium carbonate is insoluble in pure water, it is slightly soluble in water containing carbon dioxide.
Hill, Observations on the Osmotic Properties of th Root-Hairs of certain Salt Marsh Plants, in The New Phytologia (1908), vol.
Marchal points out the analogy of this phenomenon to the artificial polyembryony that has been induced in Echinoderm and other eggs by separating the blastomeres, and suggests that the abundant food-supply afforded by the host-larva is favourable for this multiplication of embryos, which may be, in the first instance, incited by the abnormal osmotic pressure on the egg.
The evidence which led Arrhenius to this conclusion was based on van 't Hoff's work on the osmotic pressure of solutions (see Solution).
This equilibrium pressure is called the osmotic pressure of the solution, and thermodynamic theory shows that, in an ideal case of perfect separation between solvent and solute, it should have the same value as the pressure which a number of molecules equal to the number of solute molecules in the solution would exert if they could exist as a gas in a space equal to the volume of the solution, provided that the space was large enough (i.e.
Van Hoff pointed out that measurements of osmotic pressure confirmed this value in the case of dilute solutions of cane sugar.
Thermodynamic theory also indicates a connexion between the osmotic pressure of a solution and the depression of its freezing point and its vapour pressure compared with those of the pure solvent.
But when we pass to solutions of mineral salts and acids - to solutions of electrolytes in fact - we find that the observed values of the osmotic pressures and of the allied phenomena are greater than the normal values.
(I) In very dilute solutions of simple substances, where only one kind of dissociation is possible and the dissociation of the ions is complete, the number of pressure-producing particles necessary to produce the observed osmotic effects should be equal to the number of ions given by a molecule of the salt as shown by its electrical properties.
Thus the osmotic pressure, or the depression of the freezing point of a solution of potassium chloride should, at extreme dilution, be twice the normal value, but of a solution of sulphuric acid three times that value, since the potassium salt contains two ions and the acid three.
At present, measurements of freezing point are more convenient and accurate than those of osmotic pressure, and we may test the validity of Arrhenius' relations by their means.
It' would be possible for a body in solution to be dissociated into non-electrical parts, which would give osmotic pressure effects twice or three times the normal value, but, being uncharged, would not act as ions and impart electrical conductivity to the solution.
It should be pointed out that no measurements on osmotic pressures or freezing points can do more than tell us that an excess of particles is present; such experiments can throw no light on the question whether or not those particles are electrically charged.
The dissociation theory was originally suggested by the osmotic pressure relations.
Again, we may calculate the osmotic work done, and, if the whole cycle of operations be supposed to occur at the same temperature, the osmotic work must be equal and opposite to the electrical work of the first operation.
The result of the investigation shows that the electrical work Ee is given by the_equation Ee =1 where v is the volume of the solution used and p its osmotic pressure.
When the solutions may be taken as effectively dilute, so that the gas laws apply to the osmotic pressure, this relation reduces to E _ nrRT to c1 ey gE c2 where n is the number of ions given by one molecule of the salt, r the transport ratio of the anion, R the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, y the total valency of the anions obtained from one molecule, and c i and c 2 the concentrations of the two solutions.
When the dissolved molecules are uniformly distributed, the osmotic pressure will be the same everywhere throughout the solution, but, if the concentration vary from point to point, the pressure will vary also.
There must, then, be a relation between the rate of change of the concentration and the osmotic pressure gradient, and thus we may consider the osmotic pressure gradient as a force driving the solute through a viscous medium.
On the analogy between this case and that of the interface between two solutions, Nernst has arrived at similar logarithmic expressions for the difference of potential, which becomes proportional to log (P 1 /P 2) where P2 is taken to mean the osmotic pressure of the cations in the solution, and P i the osmotic pressure of the cations in the substance of the metal itself.
Thus Ludwig was of opinion that the lymph-flow is dependent upon two factors, first, difference in pressure of the blood in the capillaries and the liquid in the plasma spaces outside; and, secondly, chemical interchanges setting up osmotic currents through the vessel-walls.
Much more important is the effect of the alteration in the amount of crystalloids in the tissues and blood and therefore of the alteration in the osmotic pressure between these.
Loeb found experimentally that increase of metabolic products in muscle greatly raised its osmotic pressure, and so it would absorb water from a relatively concentrated sodium chloride solution.
Welch produced oedema of the lungs experimentally by increasing the pressure in the pulmonary vessels by ligature of the aorta and its branches, but this raised the blood pressure only about one-tenth of an atmosphere, while in some of Loeb's experiments the osmotic pressure, due to retained metabolic products, was equal to over thirty atmospheres.
Thus differences in osmotic pressure may be much more powerful in producing oedema than mere differences in blood pressure.
Now differences in the amount of crystalloids cause alteration in osmotic pressure while the proteid content affects it but little; and of the crystalloids the chlorides appear to be those most liable to variation.
Some other observers, however, have not got such good results with a chloride-free diet, and Marishler, Scheel, Limbecx, Dreser and others, dispute Widal's hypothesis of a retention of chlorides as being the cause of oedema, in the case of renal dropsy at all events; they assert that the chlorides are held back in order to keep the osmotic pressure of the fluid, which they assume to have been effused, equal to that of the blood and tissues.
Thus, while increased pressure in the blood or lymph vessels may be one factor, and increased permeability of the capillary endothelium another, increased osmotic pressure in the tissues and lymph is probably the most important in the production of dropsy.
This increased osmotic pressure is again due to accumulation of crystalloids in the tissues, either products of metabolism due to deficient oxidation from alteration in the blood or other cause, or, it may be, as in some cases of nephritis, owing to a.
We therefore regard the body of a Cestode as a single organism within which the gonads have become segmented, and the segmentation of the body as a secondary phenomenon associated with diffuse osmotic feeding in the narrow intestinal canal.
The movement of water into the root-hairs is brought about by the osmotic action of certain salts in their cell-sap. Crops are, however, unable to absorb all the water present in the soil, for when the films become very thin they are held more firmly or cling with more force to the soil particles and resist the osmotic action of the root-hairs.
Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.
According to the investigations of Svante Arrhenius the osmotic pressure in atmospheres may be obtained by simply multiplying the temp rature of freezing (r) by the factor -12.08, and it varies with temperature (t) according to the law which holds good for gaseous pressure.
Pt = Po(' +0 00367t) and can thus be reduced to its value at o° C. Sigurd Stenius has calculated tables of osmotic pressure for sea-water of different degrees of concentration.
The relation of the elevation of the boiling-point (t°) to the osmotic pressure (P) is very simply derived from the formula t=o 02407P 0, while the reduction of vapour pressure proportional to the concentration can be very easily obtained from the elevation of the boiling-point, or it may be obtained directly from tables of vapour tension.
The importance of the osmotic pressure of sea-water in biology will be easily understood from the fact that a frog placed in sea-water loses water by exosmosis and soon becomes 20% lighter than its original weight, while a true salt-water fish suddenly transferred to fresh water gains water by endosmosis, swells up and quickly succumbs.
Pfeffer, made known the phenomena of the osmotic pressure which is set up by the passage of solvent through a membrane impermeable to the dissolved substance or solute.
Van't Hoff in 1885, who showed that Pfeffer's results indicated that osmotic pressure of a dilute solution conformed to the well-known laws of gas pressure, and had the same absolute value as the same number of molecules would exert as a gas filling a space equal to the value of the solvent.
But such a pressure represents the equilibrium osmotic pressure discussed above.
Therefore the equilibrium osmotic pressure of a solution is connected with the vapour pressure, arid, in a very dilute solution, is expressed by the simple relation just given.
In any solution, then, the osmotic pressure represents the excess of hydrostatic pressure which it is necessary to apply to the solution in order to increase its vapour pressure to an equality with that of the solvent in the given conditions.
By imagining that a dilute solution is put through a thermodynamic cycle we may deduce directly relations between its osmotic pressure and its freezing point.
Another application of the theory of energy enables us to coordinate the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution with the pressure of a gas occupying the same space.
On the fundamental hypotheses of the molecular theory, Value we must regard a solution as composed of a number osmotic of separate particles of solute, scattered through- p out the solvent.
Now the work done by allowing a small quantity of solvent to enter reversibly into an osmotic cylinder is measured by the product of the osmotic pressure into the change in volume.
Hence the osmotic pressure is measured by the work done per unit change of volume of the solution.
The result of our consideration, therefore, is that the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution of a volatile solute must have the same value as the gaseous pressure the same number of solute particles would exert if they occupied as gas a volume equal to that of the solution.