History of Ornithology to End of 28th Century.
The local works on English birds are too numerous to be mentioned; almost every county has had its ornithology recorded.
Notwithstanding this, to Gloger seems to belong the credit of being the first author to avail himself in a book intended for practical ornithologists of the new light that had already been shed on Systematic Ornithology; and accordingly we have the second order of his arrangement, the A y es Passerinae, divided into two suborders: singing passerines (melodusae), and passerines without an apparatus of song-muscles (anomalae) - the latter including what some later writers called Picariae.
Here there is only space to name Bontius, Clusius, Hernandez (or Fernandez), Marcgrave, Nieremberg and Piso, 6 whose several works describing the natural products of both the Indies - whether the result of their own observation or compilation - together with those of Olina and Worm, produced a marked effect, since they led up to what may be deemed the foundation of scientific ornithology.'
Eleazar Albin between 1738 and 1740 produced a Natural History of Birds in three volumes of more modest dimensions; but he seems to have been ignorant of ornithology, and his coloured plates are greatly inferior to Catesby's.
4 Taking his labours as a whole, there cannot be a doubt that he enormously enlarged the purview of naturalists, and, even if limited to birds, that, on the completion of his work upon them in 1783, ornithology stood in a very different position from that which it had before occupied.
Several other works bearing upon ornithology in general, but of less importance than most of those just named, belong to this period.
" 1 We prefer giving them here in Swainson's version, because he seems to have set them forth more clearly and concisely than Macleay ever did, and, moreover, Swainson's application of them to ornithology - a branch of science that lay outside of Macleay's proper studies - appears to be more suitable to the present occasion.
Two supplementary parts were issued in 1835 and 1840 respectively, and the work for many years deservedly maintained the highest position as the authority on European ornithology-indeed in England it may almost without exaggeration be said to have been nearly the only foreign ornithological work known; but, as could only be expected, grave defects are now to be discovered in it.
The ornithology of New South Wales and Queensland is more varied and interesting than that of the other provinces.
TAPACULO, the name 1 given in Chile to a bird of singular appearance - the Pteroptochus albicollis of ornithology, and applied in an extended sense to its allied forms, which constitute a small family, Pteroptochidae, belonging to the Clainatores division of Passeres, peculiar to South America.
The ornithology of northern Asia is even more closely allied to that of Europe than the mammal fauna.
The earliest known use of the word Ornithology seems to be in the third edition of Blount's Glossographia (1670), where it is noted as being " the title of a late Book."
Aristotle was the first serious author on ornithology with whose writings we are acquainted, but even he had, as he tells us, predecessors; and, looking to that portion of his works on animals which has come down to us, one Early s.
In the same year and from the same press was issued a Dialogus de Avibus by Gybertus Longolius, and in 1570 Caius brought out in London his treatise De rariorum animalium atque stirpium historic. In this last work, small though it be, ornithology has a good share; and all three may still be consulted with interest and advantage by its votaries.
Ray's interest in ornithology continued, and in 1694 he completed a Synopsis Methodica Avium, which, through the fault of the booksellers to whom it was entrusted, was not published till 1713, when Derham gave it to the world.'
The chief merit of the latter work lies in its forty plates, whereon the heads and feet of many birds are indifferently figured .2 But, while the successive editions of Linnaeus's great work were revolutionizing natural history, and his example of precision in language producing excellent effect on scientific writers, several other authors were advancing the study of ornithology in a very different way - a way that pleased the eye even more than his labours were pleasing the mind.
Great as were the services of Buffon to ornithology in one direction, those of a wholly different kind rendered by John m.
Confining our attention here to ornithology, Cuvier's arrangement of the class Aver is now seen to be not very much better than any which it superseded.
Hitherto mention has chiefly been made of works on general ornithology, but it will be understood that these were largely aided by the enterprise of travellers, and as there were many of them who published their narratives in separate forms their contributions have to be considered.
The only information at this period on the ornithology of South America is contained in the two works on Chile by Molina, published at Bologna in 1776 and 1782.
Both may well be named "'Faunists," and of the latter there were not a few who having turned their attention more or less to ornithology should here be 6 So little regard did he pay to the osteology of birds that, according to de Blainville (Jour.
9 The results of Forsk5.l's travels in the Levant, published after his death by Niebuhr, require mention, but the ornithology they contain is but scant.
Frisch began the long series of works on the birds of Germany with which the literature of ornithology is enriched, by his Vorstellung der Vogel Teutschlands, which was only completed in 1763, and, its coloured plates proving very attractive, was again issued at Berlin in 1817.
The fulness and accuracy of the text, combined with the neat beauty of its coloured plates, have gone far to promote the study of ornithology in Germany, and while essentially a popular work, since it is suited to the comprehension of all readers, it is throughout written with a simple dignity that commends it to the serious and scientific. Its twelfth and last volume was published in 1844 - by no means too long a period for so arduous and honest a performance, and a supplement was begun in 1847; but, the editor - or author as he may be fairly called - dying in 1857, this continuation was finished in 1860 by the joint efforts of J.
At the same place appeared in 1767 Leem's work, De Lapponibus Finmarchiae, to which Gunnerus contributed some good notes on the ornithology of northern Norway, and at Copenhagen and Leipzig was published in 1780 the Fauna Groenlandica of Otho Fabricius.
Heysham added to Hutchins's Cumberland a list of birds of that county, whilst in the same year began Thomas Lord's valueless Entire New System of Ornithology, the text of which was written or corrected by Dr Dupree, and in 1794 Donovan began a History of British Birds which was only finished in 1819 - the earlier portion being reissued about the same time.
Observations on birds form the principal though by no means the whole theme of this book, which may be safely said to have done more to promote a love of ornithology in England than any other work that has been written, nay more than all the other works (except one next to be mentioned) put together.
The other work to the importance of which on ornithology in England allusion has been made is Bewick's History of British Birds.
The existence of these two works explains the widely-spread taste for ornithology in England, which is to foreigners so puzzling, and the zeal - not always according to knowledge, but occasionally reaching to serious study - with which that taste is pursued.
Ornithology in the 19th Century.
The ornithology of Norway has been treated in a great many papers by Herr Collett, some of which may be said to have been separately published as Norges Fugle (8vo, 1868; with a supplement, 1871), and The Ornithology of Northern Norway (8vo, 1872)-this last in English.
4 Coming to the Iberian peninsula,we must, i n default of separate works depart from our rule of not mentioning contributions to journals, for of the former there are only Colonel Irby's Ornithology of the Straits of Gibraltar (8vo, 1875) and Mr A.
Saunders, the latter of whom there records (1871, p. 55) the few works on ornithology by Spanish authors, and in the Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France (i.
A similar bibliography of Russian ornithology by Alexander Brandt was printed at St Petersburg in 1877 or 1878.
4 A useful compendium of Greek and Turkish ornithology by Drs Kruper and Hartlaub is contained in Mommsen's Griechische Jahrzeiten for 1875 (Heft III.).
Next in order come the very inferior British Ornithology of Graves (3 vols.
The good effects of " Faunal " works such as those named in the foregoing rapid survey none can doubt, but important as they are, they do not of themselves constitute ornithology as a science; and an inquiry, no less wide and far more recondite, still remains.
The attempt of Merrem must be regarded as the virtual starting-point of the latest efforts in Systematic Ornithology, and in that view its proposals deserve to be stated at length.
On reviewing the progress of ornithology since the end of the 18th century, the first thing that will strike us is the fact that general works, though still undertaken, have become proportionally fewer, while special works, whether relating to the ornithic portion of the fauna of any particular country, or limited to certain groups of birds - works to which the name of " Monograph " has become wholly restricted - have become far more numerous.
Another change has come over the condition of ornithology, as of kindred sciences, induced by the multiplication of learned societies which issue publications as well as of periodicals of greater or less scientific pretension.
In 1828 James Wilson (author of the article Ornithology in the 7th and Wilson 8th editions of the present work) began, under the title of Illustrations of Zoology, the publication of a series of his own drawings (which he did not, however, himself engrave) with corresponding letterpress.