Orchids of countless varieties abound.
Orchids are very prominent among a great variety of flowering plants.
The observations of Darwin as to the fertilization of orchids, Primula, Linum and Lythrum, and other plants, and the part which insects take in this function, gave an explanation of the observations of Christian Konrad Sprengel, made at the close of the 18th century, and opened up a new phase in the study of botany, which has been followed by Hermann Miller, Federico Delphic) and others, and more recently by Paul Knuth.
Epiphytal orchids are very frequent, and reach even to 10,000 ft.
Orchids are also collected for export in the districts of Garanhuns and Timbauba.
Buttercups, violets, anemones, spring beauties, trilliums, arbutus, orchids, columbine, laurel, honeysuckle, golden rod and asters are common wild flowers, and of ferns there are many varieties.
As in the IndoMalayan sub-region, epiphytic orchids are probably most numerous in point of species, but the genera and even sub-tribes are far more restricted in their range than in the Old World; 4 sub-tribes with 74 genera of Vandeae are confined to South America, though varying in range of climate and altitude.
Ground orchids and tree orchids are well represented; Polystachya liberica, an epiphytic orchid with sprays of exquisite small flowers of purple and gold, might well be introduced into horticulture for its beauty.
Long; there are other orchids of fantastic design in their green and white flowers, some of which have spurs (r ectaries) nearly 7 in.
In Cypripedium all three stigmas are functional, but in the great majority of orchids only the lateral pair form receptive surfaces (st, fig.
In the common orchids of British meadows, Orchis Mori-o, mascula (Shakespeare's long purples), &c., the general structure of the flower is as we have described it (figs.
In other orchids movements take place in different ways and in other directions.
This fact will account for the profusion with which some orchids, like the common bee orchis for instance, are found in some seasons and their scarcity in others.
Tropical orchids are mostly epiphytal - that is, they grow upon trees without deriving nourishment from them.
In most orchids the only stamen developed to maturity is the posterior one of the three opposite to the lip (anterior before the twisting of the ovary), the other two, as well as all three inner ones, being entirely absent, or present only in the form of rudiments.
This arrangement may be understood by reference to the following diagram, representing the relative position of the stamens in orchids generally and in Cypripedium.
Orchids are among the common flowers.
Effective pollination may also occur between flowers of different species, or occasionally, as in the case of several orchids, of different genera - this is known as hybridization.
Then, there are the mangrove-fringed coasts and the dripping wooded slopes where rare orchids thrive, and above these, on the inland side of the sierra, a treeless, sun-scorched table-land where only the cactus, yucca, and other coarse vegetation of the desert can thrive without irrigation.
For Flora: Maiden, Useful Native Plants of Australia (Sydney, 1889); Bentham and Mueller, Flora Australiensis (London, 1863-1878); Fitzgerald, Australian Orchids (Sydney, 1870-1890); Mueller, Census of Australian Plants (Melbourne, 1889).
In the roots of some palms and orchids a polystelic structure obtains.
The number of species of orchids is greater than that of any other monocotyledonous order - not even excepting grasses - amounting to 6000, contained in 400 genera.
The economic uses of orchids are not remarkable.
The cultivation of orchids is treated under Horticulture.
Travellers are especially struck with the beauty of some of the wild flowers, more especially with the lilies and convolvuluses; and European greenhouses have been enriched by several Formosan orchids and other ornamental plants.
On the mountain slopes orchids are found in great profusion.
The orchids may be taken as offering fair types of the Japanese artists ideal in all art work.
Darwin's works on dimorphic flowers and the fertilization of orchids gave powerful support to this statement.
Among the well-known forest products of this zone are arnotto, jalap, ipecacuanha, sarsaparilla, rubber, orchids and a great variety of gums.
Among indigenous fruit-bearing trees, shrubs and vines the state has the bird cherry, black cherry, blueberry, cranberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, strawberry, grape and black currant; and conspicuous among a very great variety of shrubs and flowering plants are the rose, dogwood, laurel, sumac, holly, winterberry, trilliums, anemones, arbutuses, violets, azaleas, eglantine, clematis, blue gentians, orange lilies, orchids, asters and golden rod.
This is the case with many of our roses, dahlias, begonias, pelargoniums, orchids and other long or widely cultivated garden plants.
For stove and greenhouse plants, orchids, ferns, &c., labels made of xylonite, zinc and other materials are also used.
Beautiful terrestrial orchids, requiring to be planted in peat soil, in a cool and rather shady situation.
The following is a select list of genera of miscellaneous decorative plants (orchids, palms and ferns excluded; climbers are denoted by *; bulbous and tuberous plants by f) Stove Plants.
- For the successful cultivation of a mixed collection of tropical orchids, it is necessary that two or three houses, in which different temperatures can be maintained, should be provided.
While in flower, orchids may with advantage be removed to a drier and cooler situation, and may be utilized in the drawing-room or boudoir.
To keep a valuable collection of orchids in good condition requires the services of an expert orchid grower.
Watson, Orchids, their Culture and Management; G.
David, who spent some time in the Albert Edward district, that the creature dwells in the most dense parts of the primeval forest, where there is an undergrowth of solid-leaved, swamp-loving plants, such as arum, Donax and Phrynium, which, with orchids and climbing plants, form a thick and confused mass of vegetation.
In the low brushwood scattered over portions of the dreary plains of the Kandahar table-lands, we find leguminous thorny plants of the papilionaceous sub-order, such as camel-thorn (Hedysarum Alhagi), Astragalus in several varieties, spiny rest-harrow (Ononis spinosa), the fibrous roots of which often serve as a tooth-brush; plants of the sub-order Mimosae, as the sensitive mimosa; a plant of the rue family, called by the natives lipdtd; the common wormwood; also certain orchids, and several species of Salsola.
Among the more beautiful of the flowering plants are rhododendrons, orchids and .pitcher-plants - the latter reaching extraordinary development, especially in the northern districts about Kinabalu.
Flowering plants include numerous species of terrestrial orchids, the socalled arum lily (Richardia Africana), common in low-lying moist land, and the white everlasting flower, found abundantly in some regions of Cape Colony.
Other ferns, Scitamineae, orchids and climbing Aroideae are very numerous, the last named profusely adorning the forests with their splendid dark-green foliage.
Epiphytal orchids are extremely numerous between 6000 and 8000 ft.
Orchids and aloes are common.
As late as the year 1900 Mr Albert Millican, while collecting orchids on the Opon river, a tributary of the Magdalena between Bogota and the Caribbean coast, was attacked by hostile Indians, and one of his companions was killed by a poisoned arrow.
The imports include wheat flour, rice, barley, prepared foods, sugar, coal, kerosene, beer, wines and liquors, railway equipment, machinery and general hardware, fence wire, cotton and other textiles, drugs, lumber, cement, paper, &c., while the exports comprise coffee, bananas, hides and skins, tobacco, precious metals, rubber, cabinet woods, divi-divi, dye-woods, vegetable ivory, Panama hats, orchids, vanilla, &c.
Colvillia racemosa, with yellow flowers; Astrapaea Wallichii, striking attention from its abundant flowers; and species of Cryptostegia, a purple-flowered creeper, and Strongylodon, another creeper with cream-coloured blossoms. Among attractive plants are species of Hibiscus, Euphorbia, Buddleia, Ixora, Kitchingia, Clematis, &c. On the east coast two orchids, species of Angraecum, with large white waxy flowers, one with an extraordinarily long spur or nectary, attract the attention of every traveller during June and July by their abundance and beauty.
Sometimes the twisting of a part makes a change in the position of other parts, as in Orchids, where the twisting of the ovary changes the position of the labellum.
In some corollas the two lips become hollowed out in a remarkable manner, as in calceolaria, assuming a slipper-like appearance, similar to what occurs in the labellum of some orchids, as Cypripedium.
In orchids each of the pollen-masses has a prolongation or stalk (caudicle) which adheres to a prolongation at the base of the anther (rostellum) by means of a viscid gland (retinaculum) which is either naked or covered.
The term clinandrium is sometimes applied to the part of the column in orchids where the stamens are situated.
In some orchids, as Cypripedium, the pollen has its ordinary character of separate grains.
In addition to these modifications, which are common to nearly all orchids, there are others generally but not so universally met with; among them is the displacement of the flower arising from the twisting of the inferior ovary, in consequence of which the flower is so completely turned round that the "lip," which originates in that part of the flower, conventionally called the posterior or superior part, or that S c ?
See Darwin's Fertilization of Orchids and similar works.
For epiphytal plants like orchids the most thorough drainage must be secured by the abundant use of potsherds, small pots being sometimes inserted inside the larger ones, or by planting in shallow pots or pans, so that there shall be no large mass of soil to get consolidated.
Adhesion is well seen in the gynostemium of orchids, where the stamens and stigmas adhere.