Orchids of countless varieties abound.
Orchids are also collected for export in the districts of Garanhuns and Timbauba.
For Flora: Maiden, Useful Native Plants of Australia (Sydney, 1889); Bentham and Mueller, Flora Australiensis (London, 1863-1878); Fitzgerald, Australian Orchids (Sydney, 1870-1890); Mueller, Census of Australian Plants (Melbourne, 1889).
Orchids are very prominent among a great variety of flowering plants.
In the roots of some palms and orchids a polystelic structure obtains.
As in the IndoMalayan sub-region, epiphytic orchids are probably most numerous in point of species, but the genera and even sub-tribes are far more restricted in their range than in the Old World; 4 sub-tribes with 74 genera of Vandeae are confined to South America, though varying in range of climate and altitude.
Ground orchids and tree orchids are well represented; Polystachya liberica, an epiphytic orchid with sprays of exquisite small flowers of purple and gold, might well be introduced into horticulture for its beauty.
Long; there are other orchids of fantastic design in their green and white flowers, some of which have spurs (r ectaries) nearly 7 in.
The flowers of all orchids, though extremely diverse within certain limits, and although superficially very different from those of other monocotyledons, are ° 1' all formed upon one common plan, which is only a modification of that observable in such flowers as those of the narcissus s ate/ S `?
In Cypripedium all three stigmas are functional, but in the great majority of orchids only the lateral pair form receptive surfaces (st, fig.
See Darwin's Fertilization of Orchids and similar works.
In the common orchids of British meadows, Orchis Mori-o, mascula (Shakespeare's long purples), &c., the general structure of the flower is as we have described it (figs.
In other orchids movements take place in different ways and in other directions.
This fact will account for the profusion with which some orchids, like the common bee orchis for instance, are found in some seasons and their scarcity in others.
Tropical orchids are mostly epiphytal - that is, they grow upon trees without deriving nourishment from them.
The number of species of orchids is greater than that of any other monocotyledonous order - not even excepting grasses - amounting to 6000, contained in 400 genera.
The economic uses of orchids are not remarkable.
The cultivation of orchids is treated under Horticulture.
In most orchids the only stamen developed to maturity is the posterior one of the three opposite to the lip (anterior before the twisting of the ovary), the other two, as well as all three inner ones, being entirely absent, or present only in the form of rudiments.
This arrangement may be understood by reference to the following diagram, representing the relative position of the stamens in orchids generally and in Cypripedium.
The most important are the following: Ophrydineae, with about 45 genera, of terrestrial orchids, mainly north temperate, including the British genera Orchis, Aceras, Ophrys, Herminium, Gymnadenia and Habenaria.
Epiphytal orchids are very frequent, and reach even to 10,000 ft.
Buttercups, violets, anemones, spring beauties, trilliums, arbutus, orchids, columbine, laurel, honeysuckle, golden rod and asters are common wild flowers, and of ferns there are many varieties.
Travellers are especially struck with the beauty of some of the wild flowers, more especially with the lilies and convolvuluses; and European greenhouses have been enriched by several Formosan orchids and other ornamental plants.
On the mountain slopes orchids are found in great profusion.
Orchids are among the common flowers.
The orchids may be taken as offering fair types of the Japanese artists ideal in all art work.
The observations of Darwin as to the fertilization of orchids, Primula, Linum and Lythrum, and other plants, and the part which insects take in this function, gave an explanation of the observations of Christian Konrad Sprengel, made at the close of the 18th century, and opened up a new phase in the study of botany, which has been followed by Hermann Miller, Federico Delphic) and others, and more recently by Paul Knuth.
Effective pollination may also occur between flowers of different species, or occasionally, as in the case of several orchids, of different genera - this is known as hybridization.
Darwin's works on dimorphic flowers and the fertilization of orchids gave powerful support to this statement.
Then, there are the mangrove-fringed coasts and the dripping wooded slopes where rare orchids thrive, and above these, on the inland side of the sierra, a treeless, sun-scorched table-land where only the cactus, yucca, and other coarse vegetation of the desert can thrive without irrigation.
Sometimes the twisting of a part makes a change in the position of other parts, as in Orchids, where the twisting of the ovary changes the position of the labellum.
Adhesion is well seen in the gynostemium of orchids, where the stamens and stigmas adhere.
In some corollas the two lips become hollowed out in a remarkable manner, as in calceolaria, assuming a slipper-like appearance, similar to what occurs in the labellum of some orchids, as Cypripedium.
In orchids each of the pollen-masses has a prolongation or stalk (caudicle) which adheres to a prolongation at the base of the anther (rostellum) by means of a viscid gland (retinaculum) which is either naked or covered.
The term clinandrium is sometimes applied to the part of the column in orchids where the stamens are situated.
In some orchids, as Cypripedium, the pollen has its ordinary character of separate grains.
Colvillia racemosa, with yellow flowers; Astrapaea Wallichii, striking attention from its abundant flowers; and species of Cryptostegia, a purple-flowered creeper, and Strongylodon, another creeper with cream-coloured blossoms. Among attractive plants are species of Hibiscus, Euphorbia, Buddleia, Ixora, Kitchingia, Clematis, &c. On the east coast two orchids, species of Angraecum, with large white waxy flowers, one with an extraordinarily long spur or nectary, attract the attention of every traveller during June and July by their abundance and beauty.
As late as the year 1900 Mr Albert Millican, while collecting orchids on the Opon river, a tributary of the Magdalena between Bogota and the Caribbean coast, was attacked by hostile Indians, and one of his companions was killed by a poisoned arrow.
The imports include wheat flour, rice, barley, prepared foods, sugar, coal, kerosene, beer, wines and liquors, railway equipment, machinery and general hardware, fence wire, cotton and other textiles, drugs, lumber, cement, paper, &c., while the exports comprise coffee, bananas, hides and skins, tobacco, precious metals, rubber, cabinet woods, divi-divi, dye-woods, vegetable ivory, Panama hats, orchids, vanilla, &c.
Orchids and aloes are common.
Other ferns, Scitamineae, orchids and climbing Aroideae are very numerous, the last named profusely adorning the forests with their splendid dark-green foliage.