In 1641 the town was taken by Owen Roe O'Neill, but shortly afterwards it was recaptured by Lord Inchiquin.
C. O'Neill, New Things and Old in St Thomas Aquinas (1909), with biography.
In 1585 Lord Deputy Sir John Perrot undertook the shiring of Ulster (excluding the counties Antrim and Down, which had already taken shape); and his work, though of little immediate effect owing to the rising of Hugh O'Neill, served as a basis for the division of the territory at the plantation of Ulster in the reign of James I.
O'NEILL, the name of an Irish family tracing descent from Niall, king of Ireland early in the 5th century, and known in Irish history and legend as Niall of the Nine Hostages.
O'Neill, grandson of Neill, or Niall, the name O'Neill becoming about this time an hereditary family surname 2), whose grandson, Flaherty, became renowned for piety by going on a pilgrimage to Rome in 1030.
Aedh (Hugh) O'Neill, chief of the Cinel Eoghain, or lord of Tir-Eoghain (Tir-Owen, Tyrone) at the end of the 12th century, was the first of the family to be brought prominently into conflict with the Anglo-Norman monarchy, whose pretensions he took the lead in disputing in Ulster.
It was probably his son or nephew (for the relationship is uncertain, the genealogies of the O'Neills being rendered obscure by the contemporaneous occurrence of the same name in different branches of the family) Hugh O'Neill, lord of Tyrone, who was styled "Head of the liberality and valour of the Irish."
Niall Og O'Neill, one of the four kings of Ireland, accepted knighthood from Richard II.
Chief of the clan) on the death of his kinsman Domhnall Boy O'Neill; a dignity from which he was deposed in 1455 by his son Henry, who in 1463 was acknowledged as chief of the Irish kings by Henry VII.
Conn O'Neill (c. 1480-1559), 1st earl of Tyrone, surnamed Bacach (the Lame), grandson of Henry O'Neill mentioned above, was the first of the O'Neills whom the attempts of the English in the 16th century to subjugate Ireland brought to the front as leaders of the native Irish.
When Kildare became viceroy in 1524, O'Neill consented to act as his swordbearer in ceremonies of state; but his allegiance was not to be reckoned upon, and while ready enough to give verbal assurances of loyalty, he could not be persuaded to give hostages as security for his conduct; but Tyrone having been invaded in 1541 by Sir Anthony St Leger, the lord deputy, Conn delivered up his son as a hostage, attended a parliament held at Trim, and, crossing to England, made his submission at Greenwich to Henry VIII., who created him earl of Tyrone for life, and made him a present of money and a valuable gold chain.
Conn was twice married, Shane being the son of his first wife, a daughter of Hugh Boy O'Neill of Clanaboy.
Shane O'Neill (C. 1530-1567) was a chieftain whose support was worth gaining by the English even during his father's lifetime; but rejecting overtures from the earl of Sussex, the lord deputy, Shane refused to help the English against the Scottish settlers on the coast of Antrim, allying himself instead with the MacDonnells, the most powerful of these immigrants.
Nevertheless Queen Elizabeth, on succeeding to the English throne, was disposed to come to terms with Shane, who after his father's death was de facto chief of the formidable O'Neill clan.
She accordingly agreed to recognize his claims to the chieftainship, thus throwing over Brian O'Neill, son of the murdered Matthew, The ceremony of "inauguration" among the ancient Irish clans was an elaborate and important one.
O'Neill, however, refused to put himself in the power of Sussex without a guarantee for his safety; and his claims in other respects were so exacting that Elizabeth consented to measures being taken to subdue him and to restore Brian.
Characteristically, she temporized; but finding that O'Neill was in danger of becoming a tool in the hands of Spanish intriguers, she permitted him to return to Ireland, recognizing him as "the O'Neill," and chieftain of Tyrone; though a reservation was made of the rights of Hugh O'Neill, who had meantime succeeded his brother Brian as baron of Dungannon, Brian having been murdered in April 1562 by his kinsman Turlough Luineach O'Neill.
There were at this time three powerful contemporary members of the O'Neill family in Ireland - Shane, Turlough and Hugh, 2nd earl of Tyrone.
Force having ignominiously failed, Elizabeth consented to treat, and hostilities were stopped on terms that gave O'Neill practically the whole of his demands.
O'Neill now turned his hand against the MacDonnells, claiming that he was serving the queen of England in harrying the Scots.
O'Neill ravaged the Pale, failed in an attempt on Dundalk, made a truce with the MacDonnells, and sought help from the earl of Desmond.
Failing in an attempt to arrange terms, and also in obtaining the help which he solicited from France, O'Neill was utterly routed by the O'Donnells at Letterkenny; and seeking safety in flight, he threw himself on the mercy of his enemies, the MacDonnells.
In his private character Shane O'Neill was a brutal, uneducated savage.
Turlough Luineach O'Neill (c. 1530-1595), earl of Clanconnell, was inaugurated chief of Tyrone on Shane's death.
But his conduct giving rise to suspicions, an expedition under the earl of Essex was sent against him, which met with such doubtful success that in 1575 a treaty was arranged by which O'Neill received extensive grants of lands and permission to employ three hundred Scottish mercenaries.
In his autobiography Man of the House, former U.S. House Speaker Tip O'Neill wrote about how the government funded the Manhattan Project to build the atomic bomb.
O'Neill observed that scrutiny of government had become so intense that officials never could have gotten away with that—and he was writing in the late 1980s.
Fast-forward a couple of decades, and the Internet has done vastly more than O'Neill could have imagined to promote open information about government.