Objections to the belief in immortality have been advanced from the standpoints of materialism, naturalism, pessimism and pantheism.
The theory of psychophysical parallelism has been subjected to a rigorous examination in James Ward's Naturalism and Agnosticism, part iii., in which the argument that mind cannot be derived from matter is convincingly presented.
Another objection is advanced from the standpoint of naturalism, which, whether it issues in materialism or not, seeks to explain man as but a product of the process of nature.
Lotze; more drastic in Ward's Naturalism and Agnosticism).
Alongside of this there are other elements in Spencer's composite system of " Naturalism and Agnosticism " (J.
The element of naturalism stands for science with a leaning towards materialism (" explanation in terms of matter and motion ").
In " Some Consequences of (naturalistic) Belief," Balfour argues that the results of " naturalism " are unbearable.
Wolff's list is of some historical importance - atheism, deism (a God without care for men) and naturalism (denial of supernatural revelation); anthropomorphism (assigning a human body to God); materialism, and idealism (non-existence of matter); paganism (polytheism); Manichaeism, Spinozism, Epicureanism.
James Ward's masterly criticism of Herbert Spencer (Naturalism and Agnosticism) has been mentioned above.
Both the signet types and the other objects of art here discovered display the fresh naturalism that characterizes in a special way the first Late Minoan period.
For opposite reasons, neither the Greek nor the Jewish mind lent itself readily to mysticism: the Greek, because of its clear and sunny naturalism; the Jewish, because of its rigid monotheism and its turn towards worldly realism and statutory observance.
Other influences which may be traced in his writings are those of modern naturalism and of a somewhat misinterpreted Darwinism ("strength" is generally interpreted as physical endowment, but it has sometimes to be reluctantly acknowledged that the physically feeble, by their combination and cunning, prove stronger than the "strong").
The last is a philosophy of naturalism in the form of a conversation between seven learned men - a Jew, a Mahommedan, a Lutheran, a Zwinglian, a Roman Catholic, an Epicurean and a Theist.
Though uncompromising in his "supra-naturalism," he did not altogether satisfy the men of his own school by his own doctrinal system.
(I) He perceived the importance of the universal or conceptual element in knowledge, and thus at a single stroke broke through the hard realism of ordinary common sense, disproved all forms of naturalism that were founded on the denial of the reality of thought, and cut away the ground from a merely sensational and subjective idealism.
It is easy to understand how English empiricism issued at once in the trenchant naturalism of Hobbes.
The same general line of thought underlies James Ward's Naturalism and Agnosticism (2nd ed., 1903), and A.
Sorley, Ethics of Naturalism (2nd ed., 1904); J.
In the last third of the 18th century two important movements came into play, the " naturalism " of Rousseau and the " new humanism."
Naturalism of Rousseau and the new humanism is Herder to be found in J.G.
It has been well observed that his style is a medium between that of Perugino and that of Giovanni Bellini; he has somewhat more of spontaneous naturalism than the former, and of abstract dignity in feature and form than the latter.
James Ward, in Naturalism and Agnosticism (1899), starts from the same phenomenalistic views of Mach and Kirchhoff about mechanics; he proceeds to the hypothesis of duality within experience, which we have traced in James Ward.
This is his way of destroying Naturalism and Agnosticism.
For the accuracy of the facial curves, and the grasp of character and type, it is equal to any later work; and in its entire absence of conventions and its pnre naturalism there is no later sculpture so good: as Prof. A.
The Pyramid Kings.A different ideal appears in the pyramid times; in place of the naturalism of the earlier work there is more regularity, some convention, and the sense of a school in the style.
An overwhelming naturalism swamped the older reserves of Egyptian art, and the expression of the postures, actions and familiarities of daily life, or the instantaneous attitudes of animals, became the dernier cri of fashion.
The burst of naturalism under Akhenaton resulted in some marvellous portraiture, of which the fragment of a queens head (Plate IV.
And under Akhenaton this was pervaded by an entire naturalism of posture, as seen in the two little princesses (Plate IV.
1847) had in 1879 written a solitary novel, Gertrude Coldbjornsen, which created a sensation, and was hailed by Brandes as exactly representing the " naturalism " which he desired to see encouraged; but Skram has written little else of importance.
On the other hand, something of a revival of naturalism is to be observed in the powerful studies of low life admirably written by Karl Larsen (b.
Democritean physics without a calculus had necessarily proved sterile of determinate concrete results, and this was more than enough to ripen the naturalism of the utilitarian school into scepticism.
It was because the aftermath of Newtonian science was so rich that the scientific faith of naturalism was able to retain a place besides its epistemological creed that a logician of the school could arise whose spirit was in some sort Baconian, but who, unlike Bacon, had entered the modern world, and faced the problems stated for it by Hume and by Newton.
In Boehme's spirit, Schelling defended his idea of God as the only way of vindicating for God the consciousness which naturalism denies, and which ordinary theism emptily asserts.
Ward, Naturalism and Agnosticism (1899).
The naturalism of which we have been speaking found free utterance now in the fabliaux of jongleurs, lyrics of minnesingers, tales of trouveres, romances of Arthur and his knights - compositions varied in type and tone, but in all of which sincere passion and real enjoyment of life pierce through the thin veil of chivalrous mysticism or of allegory with which they were sometimes conventionally draped.
But perhaps the most convincing testimony to the presence of this ineradicable naturalism is afforded by the Latin songs of wandering students, known as Carmina Burana, written by the self-styled Goliardi.
Thus, while Christendom was still preoccupied with the Crusades, two main forces of the Renaissance, naturalism and enthusiasm for antique modes of feeling, already brought their latent potency to light, prematurely indeed and precociously, yet with a promise that was destined to be kept.
Among a great series of engraved silver bowls,' found mostly in Cyprus, but also as far off as Nineveh, Olympia, Caere and Praeneste, some examples show almost unmixed imitation of Egyptian scenes and devices; in others, Assyrian types are introduced among the Egyptian in senseless confusion; in others, both traditions are merged in a mixed art, which betrays a return to naturalism and a new sense of style, like that of the Idaean bronzes in Crete.° From its intermediate position between the art of Phoenicia and its western colonies (so far as this is known) and the earliest Hellenic art in the Aegean, this style has been called Graeco-Phoenician.
Polyzoic Naturalism (hypothetical).
This creed of naturalism is.
We do not know whether his influence was brought to bear in this sense upon Spinoza; but it has been suggested that the writings of Bruno, whose spirit of enthusiastic naturalism and fervid revolt against the Church would be especially dear to a man of Van den Ende's leanings, may have been put into the pupil's hand by the master.
Zola was the apostle of the "realistic" or "naturalistic" school; but he was in truth not a "naturalist" at all, in so far as "naturalism" is to be regarded as a record of fact.
The Mask of Pandora is a proof of that growing appreciation of pagan naturalism which marked the poet's later years.
Ward in his Gifford lectures for 1896-1898 (Naturalism and Agnosticism, 1899), Huxley's challenge ("I know what I mean when I say I believe in the law of the inverse squares, and I will not rest my life and my hopes upon weaker convictions") is one which a spiritualistic philosophy need not shrink from accepting at the hands of naturalistic agnosticism.
Of this necessity there is a growing consciousness in recent years, and no more notable exposition of it has been published than is contained in James Ward's Naturalism and Agnosticism.
It would be quite possible to accept his criticisms of naturalism and hedonism while rejecting many of the metaphysical inferences which he draws.
Sorley, On the Ethics of Naturalism (1885); W.
But this mission helped to make him an object of suspicion to the other members of the Committee of Public Safety, and especially to Robespierre, who as a deist and a fanatical follower of the ideas of Rousseau, hated Herault, the follower of the naturalism of Diderot.