For the chief events of the ensuing campaigns see NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS.
There is no need to detail the fortunes of the Napoleonic states in Italy.
At Lyons, on the 13th of March, Napoleon had issued an edict dissolving the existing chambers and ordering the convocation of a national mass meeting, or Champ de Mai, for the purpose of modifying the constitution of the Napoleonic empire.
The processes used were at first very imperfect, but the extraordinary increase in the price of sugar on the Continent caused by the Napoleonic policy gave an impetus to the industry, 1 Lucan iii.
Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy (2 vols., with an excellent bibliography, London, 1904); Correspondence of Napoleon with Joseph Bonaparte (2 vols., New York, 1856); Baron A.
Rome was full of anti-revolutionary and anti-Napoleonic strangers from all parts of Europe.
The establishment of the Napoleonic dynasty at Madrid was the actual cause which brought about the disturbances which were to end in separation.
This large increase is to be accounted for by the fact that during the Napoleonic rgime the government steadily refused to issue inconvertible paper currency or to meet war expenditure by borrowing.
He entered the Austrian army as an infantry officer in 1801, and saw much service in the Napoleonic wars.
In this manner the bee became associated with the Napoleonic legend just as the lilies were with the Bourbons.
Italy in the Napoleonic Period, 1796-1814 27.5 E.
That campaign marked the beginning of the end for the Napoleonic domination in Italy as else- Collapse where.
The arrangements made by the allies in accordance with the treaty of Paris (June I 2, 1814) and the Final Act of the congress of Vienna (June 9, 1815), imposed on Italy boundaries which, roughly speaking, corresponded to those of the pre-Napoleonic era.
For the period of the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars see F.
Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy (2 vols., with full bibliography, London, i904); E.
The Napoleonic legislation re-established the appel comme d'abus ("Articles organiques," art.
During the Napoleonic wars, indeed, and up to the time when the introduction of steam navigation rendered the Red Sea accessible at all seasons of the year, the political correspondence of the home and Indian governments usually passed by the Euphrates route.
There are also several of the Martello towers of the Napoleonic era.
At the end of the Napoleonic wars Portugal had Macao and Goa, Holland Java, Sumatra and other islands, France some odds and ends in India, while England emerged with Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and a free hand in India.
The effect of these extraordinary changes, then, was the carrying out of Napoleonic satrapies in the north and centre of Italy in a way utterly inconsistent with the treaty of Luneville; and the weakness with which the courts of London and Vienna looked on at these singular events confirmed Bonaparte in the belief that he could do what he would with neighbouring states.
Military affairs in this period are dealt with under Napoleonic Campaigns; but it may be noted here that during the anxious days which Napoleon spent at the camp of Boulogne in the second and third weeks of August 1805, uncertain whether to risk all in an attack on England in case Villeneuve should arrive, or to turn the Grand Army against Austria, the only step which he took to avert a continental war was the despatch of General Duroc to Berlin to offer Hanover to Prussia on consideration of her framing a close alliance with France.
But it was on the banks of the Rhine that the Napoleonic system received its most signal developments.
Napoleon determined that he, like all the Bonapartist rulers, should act merely as a Napoleonic satrap. They were to be to him what the counts of the marches were to Charlemagne, warlike feudatories defending the empire or overawing its prospective foes.
This disaster, the most serious suffered by the French since Rossbach, sent a thrill through the Napoleonic vassal states and aroused in Napoleon transports of anger against Dupont.
This now stretched from Lubeck to the Pyrenees, from Brest to Rome; while another arm (only nominally severed from the empire by the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy) extended down the eastern shore of the Adriatic to Ragusa and Cattaro, threatening the Turkish empire with schemes of partition always imminent but never achieved.
The military events of the years1812-1814are described under Napoleonic Campaigns; and we need therefore note here only a few details personal to Napoleon or some considerations which influenced his policy.
On a lower level as regards credibility stands the Memorial de SainteHelene, compiled by Las Cases from Napoleon's conversations with the obvious aim of creating a Napoleonic legend.
(For the campaigns of 1796-1800, 1805-7, 1808-9, 1812-15, see French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Campaigns.) The chief works on civil, diplomatic and personal affairs in the life of Napoleon for the period1796-1799are: P. Gaffarel, Bonaparte et les republiques italiennes, 1796-1799 (Paris, 1895); C. Tivaroni, Storia critica del risorgimento italiano (3 vols., Turin, 1899 - (in progress)); E.
Fisher, Napoleonic Statesmanship: Germany (Oxford, 1903); A.
Rose, Napoleonic Studies (London, 1904).
She preserved some of the Napoleonic laws and institutions; in 1817 she established the equality of women in heritage, and ordered the compilation of a civil code which was promulgated in January 1820.
Turkey was at this time the only neutral state in Europe; it was of vital im- Treaty of portance that she should not be absorbed into the Napoleonic system, as in that case Russia would have been exposed to a simultaneous attack from France, Austria, Turkey and Persia.
The era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars falls into two main divisions, the first of which (1792-1801) is dealt with under the heading French Revolutionary Wars.
Again arrangments were made for a Napoleonic battle; behind Murat's cavalry came the " general advanced guard " to attack and hold the enemy, whilst the main body and Davout were held available to swing in on his rear.
There she obtained an Austrian passport to the frontier, and after some fears and trouble, receiving a Russian passport in Galicia, she at last escaped from the dungeon of Napoleonic Europe.
Under the long peace which followed the close of the Napoleonic wars, its trade gradually revived, fostered by the declaration of independence of South and Central America, with both of which it energetically opened close commercial relations, and by the introduction of steam navigation.
Drove them out, and brought Bologna once more under the papacy, under the sway of which it remained (except in the Napoleonic period between 1796 and 1815 and during the revolutions of 1821 and 1831) until in 1860 it became part of the kingdom of Italy.
These Napoleonic countships, increased under subsequent reigns, have produced a plentiful crop of titles of little social significance, and have tended to lower the status of the counts deriving from the ancien regime.
In its lower course, whatever is worthy of record clusters round the historical vicissitudes of Hamburg - its early prominence as a missionary centre (Ansgar) and as a bulwark against Slav and marauding Northman, its commercial prosperity as a leading member of the Hanseatic League, and its sufferings during the Napoleonic wars, especially at the hands of the ruthless Davotit.
The former, bred in the tradition of the Napoleonic battle, looked for the decision only from the employment of "masses"; the latter, trained with the breech-loader and without war experience, expected to decide battles by infantry fire only.
During the Napoleonic wars the grand-duke Ferdinand III.
From 1682 until the Napoleonic period, Bordighera was the capital of a small republic of the villages of the neighbouring valleys.
(The 'course of events which led to the action is described under Napoleonic Campaigns.) Napoleon, falling back before the advance of the allied Austrians and Russians from Olmiitz, bivouacked west of the Goldbach, whilst the allies, holding, near Austerlitz, the junction of the roads from Olmiitz and from Hungary, formed up in the valleys east of the Pratzen heights.
The overlordship thus established insensibly developed into actual possession; and except in the Napoleonic period (1 7971805 and 1809-1813) Trieste has since remained an integral part of the Austrian dominions.
His opportunity for territorial aggranddizement came during the Napoleonic wars.
Immediately to the south rises the fine cone of North Berwick Law (612 ft.), which was utilized as a signal point at the period of the Napoleonic scare.
Thenceforth it shared the fortunes of Milan, becoming in the Napoleonic period the chief town of the department of the Lario.
During the Napoleonic wars and the Crimean campaign the Grand Harbour was frequently overcrowded with shipping.
The principal provisions of the Napoleonic Code and some English enactments have been copied in a series of ordinances forming the Statute Law.
Dingli adapted a considerable portion of the Napoleonic Code in a series of Malta Ordinances, but stopped short at points likely to cause agitation.
It was conquered by France in 1795, and retained by that power until the end of the Napoleonic wars.
During the 17th and, 8th centuries and during the period of the Napoleonic wars the history of these lands was very similar to that of the other small estates of Germany.
The usual Napoleonic simplicity was wanting at Ligny, and he paid in full for the want.
It was a really Napoleonic battle.
In 1813, on the fall of the Napoleonic regime in Germany, Jerome retired to France, and in 1814 spent some time in Switzerland and at Trieste.
The largest of these was the French circle of the Napoleonic alliance, the circle of Count Rumyantsev and Caulaincourt.
He imagined all sorts of movements of the Napoleonic army as a whole or in sections--against Petersburg, or against him, or to outflank him.
The Napoleonic government and army are destroyed.
The Napoleonic wars still seem to us, though already questionably, to be the outcome of their heroes' will.