Rome was full of anti-revolutionary and anti-Napoleonic strangers from all parts of Europe.
The establishment of the Napoleonic dynasty at Madrid was the actual cause which brought about the disturbances which were to end in separation.
This large increase is to be accounted for by the fact that during the Napoleonic rgime the government steadily refused to issue inconvertible paper currency or to meet war expenditure by borrowing.
He entered the Austrian army as an infantry officer in 1801, and saw much service in the Napoleonic wars.
In this manner the bee became associated with the Napoleonic legend just as the lilies were with the Bourbons.
Italy in the Napoleonic Period, 1796-1814 27.5 E.
The campaign of 1796 which led to the awakening of the Italian people to a new consciousness of unity and strength is detailed in the article NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS.
Took place at Rimim, Brescia and Bologna; but they were sharply repressed, and most Italians came to acquiesce in the Napoleonic supremacy as inevitable and indeed beneficial.
For the chief events of the ensuing campaigns see NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS.
There is no need to detail the fortunes of the Napoleonic states in Italy.
That campaign marked the beginning of the end for the Napoleonic domination in Italy as else- Collapse where.
For the period of the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars see F.
Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy (2 vols., with full bibliography, London, i904); E.
The Napoleonic legislation re-established the appel comme d'abus ("Articles organiques," art.
During the Napoleonic wars, indeed, and up to the time when the introduction of steam navigation rendered the Red Sea accessible at all seasons of the year, the political correspondence of the home and Indian governments usually passed by the Euphrates route.
During those three years Alexander was the chief antagonist of Napoleon, and it was largely due to his skill and persistency that the allies held together and freed Europe permanently from the Napoleonic domination.
There are also several of the Martello towers of the Napoleonic era.
At the end of the Napoleonic wars Portugal had Macao and Goa, Holland Java, Sumatra and other islands, France some odds and ends in India, while England emerged with Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and a free hand in India.
The effect of these extraordinary changes, then, was the carrying out of Napoleonic satrapies in the north and centre of Italy in a way utterly inconsistent with the treaty of Luneville; and the weakness with which the courts of London and Vienna looked on at these singular events confirmed Bonaparte in the belief that he could do what he would with neighbouring states.
Military affairs in this period are dealt with under Napoleonic Campaigns; but it may be noted here that during the anxious days which Napoleon spent at the camp of Boulogne in the second and third weeks of August 1805, uncertain whether to risk all in an attack on England in case Villeneuve should arrive, or to turn the Grand Army against Austria, the only step which he took to avert a continental war was the despatch of General Duroc to Berlin to offer Hanover to Prussia on consideration of her framing a close alliance with France.
But it was on the banks of the Rhine that the Napoleonic system received its most signal developments.
Napoleon determined that he, like all the Bonapartist rulers, should act merely as a Napoleonic satrap. They were to be to him what the counts of the marches were to Charlemagne, warlike feudatories defending the empire or overawing its prospective foes.
At Lyons, on the 13th of March, Napoleon had issued an edict dissolving the existing chambers and ordering the convocation of a national mass meeting, or Champ de Mai, for the purpose of modifying the constitution of the Napoleonic empire.
The processes used were at first very imperfect, but the extraordinary increase in the price of sugar on the Continent caused by the Napoleonic policy gave an impetus to the industry, 1 Lucan iii.
Johnston, The Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy (2 vols., with an excellent bibliography, London, 1904); Correspondence of Napoleon with Joseph Bonaparte (2 vols., New York, 1856); Baron A.
The largest of these was the French circle of the Napoleonic alliance, the circle of Count Rumyantsev and Caulaincourt.
Helene had been at Erfurt during the famous meeting of the Emperors and had brought from there these connections with the Napoleonic notabilities.
The direct consequence of the battle of Borodino was Napoleon's senseless flight from Moscow, his retreat along the old Smolensk road, the destruction of the invading army of five hundred thousand men, and the downfall of Napoleonic France, on which at Borodino for the first time the hand of an opponent of stronger spirit had been laid.
He imagined all sorts of movements of the Napoleonic army as a whole or in sections--against Petersburg, or against him, or to outflank him.
Moscow is taken and after that, with no further battles, it is not Russia that ceases to exist, but the French army of six hundred thousand, and then Napoleonic France itself.
The Napoleonic government and army are destroyed.
The Napoleonic wars still seem to us, though already questionably, to be the outcome of their heroes' will.