Or federated of distinct self-governing units like Germany (where the units include kingdoms, at least three minor types of monarchies, municipalities and a crown land under a nominated governor), or the United States, where the units are democratic republics.
The system of classification adopted in time became so elaborate that many municipalities became isolated, each in a separate class, and the evils of special legislation were revived.
Tom DeLeo continued doing legwork on the Wassermann case, a curious jurisdictional mess with the Federal boys in charge but legions of local flat feet in scattered municipalities doing their grunt work.
With the growth of the central power and of that of the municipalities the vidames gradually lost all importance, and the title became merely honorary See A.
Bureaux dassistance exist in every commune, and are managed by the combined committees of the hospices and the bureaux de bienfaisance or by one of these in municipalities, where only one of those institutions exists.
Since July 1899, when the post office in Salem was made a sub-station of that of Winston, the cities (officially two independent municipalities) have been known by postal and railway authorities as Winston-Salem.
Thus grew up a number of municipalities - practically self-governing republics - semiindependent feudatories in the feudal state.
The nobility and clergy were on the side of the ducal authority; its opponents were the municipalities, especially those of Flanders.
The Postmaster-General also agreed to lay underground wires for the company at an annual rental of L1 per mile of double wire in any local area in which the company was operating, but not in areas in which the municipalities had established exchanges.
The old Celtic tribes were broken up: instead, municipalities of Roman citizens were founded to rule their territories.
Roman municipalities were not indeed unknown, but very few: the local authorities were the magistrates of the old tribal districts.
The chefs-lieux of the tribes became practically, though not officially, municipalities, and many of these towns reached considerable size and magnificence of public buildings.
Since 1870 the municipalities in European Russia have had institutions like those of the zemstvos.
Was supplied by the state, 23% by the zemstvos, 351% by the village communities and the municipalities and 112% by private persons.
Materials for forming such an estimate no doubt exist, but before doing so we have to study in infinite detail a vast number of separate manors, municipalities or other separate economic areas.
In order to comply with the court's interpretation of the constitution, municipalities were divided into only two classes, cities and villages, the former having a population of five thousand or more; the chief officials in both cities and villages were the mayor, council, treasurer and numerous boards of commissions.
Boston was one of the first municipalities of the country to make provision for the separate treatment of juvenile offenders; in 1906 a juvenile court was established.
The principal local government is that of the municipalities or municipal districts, but for the Spanish municipal government the insular legislature has substituted one resembling that of small towns in the United States, and it has reduced the number of districts from 66 to 47.
Its powers are extensive, including, in addition to ordinary legislative powers, control of financial affairs, foreign affairs, the power to declare war and approve treaties of peace, amnesties, electoral legislation for the provinces and municipalities, control of the electoral vote for president and vice-president, and designation of an acting president in case of the death or incapacity of these officers.
Municipalities are administered by mayors (alcaldes) and assemblies elected by the people, and control strictly municipal affairs.
Both provinces and municipalities are forbidden by the constitution to contract debts without a coincident provision of permanent revenue for their settlement.
For administrative purposes, Upper Austria is divided into two autonomous municipalities, Linz (58,778) the capital, and Steyr (17,592) and 12 districts.
In 1903, after the census had been taken, the population of the town was more than doubled by the addition of the municipalities of La Paz (pop. 5724), Mandurriao (pop. 4482), Molo (pop. 8551) and Jaro (pop. 10,681); in 1908 Jaro again became a separate town.
For administrative purposes, the province is divided into 22 districts and three towns with autonomous municipalities: Vienna (1,662,269), the capital (since 1905 including Floridsdorf, 36,599), Wiener-Neustadt (28,438) and Waidhofen on the Ybbs (4447) Other principal towns are: Baden (12,447) Bruck on the Leitha (5134), Schwechat (8241), Korneuburg (8298), Stokerau (10,213), Krems (12,657), Mddling (15,304), Reichenau (7457), Neunkirchen (10,831), St Pdlten (14,510) and Klosterneuburg (11,595).
The constitution provides for the autonomy of the municipalities in order to safeguard the permanence of representative institutions.
The census returns are for municipalities, and not for cities proper.
Both the national and state governments exercise the right to impose stamp and consumption taxes, and the municipalities likewise are permitted to impose licence and consumption taxes.
The aggregate of these debts in 1904 was £20,199,440, and the several loans made during the next two years, including those of the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Bahia and Manaos, add fully two and a half millions more to the total.
Plan of ' Main Entrance II Impluvium Bath IV Principal Hall 'V birth to the Christian kingdoms of the Peninsula, while the Monge de Cister, published in 1848, describes the time of King John I., when the middle class and the municipalities first asserted their power and elected a king in opposition to the nobility.
The suburbs comprise the following distinct municipalities, Alexandria, with a population in 1901 of 9341; Annandale, 8 349; Ashfield, 14,329; Balmain, 30,076; Bexley, 3079; Botany, 33 8 3; North Botany, 3772; Burwood, 7521; Camperdown, 7931 Canterbury, 4226; Concord, 2818;2818; Darlington, 3784; Drummoyne, 4244; Enfield, 2 4 97;97; Erskineville, 6059; Glebe, 19,220;, Hunter's Hill, 4232; Hurstville, 4019; Kogarah, 3892; Lane Cove, 1918; Leichhardt, 17,454; Manly, 5035; Marrickville, 18, 775; Eastwood, 713; Mosman, 5691; Newtown, 22,598;22,598; North Sydney, 22,040; Paddington, 21,984; Petersham, 15,307; Randwick, 9753; Redfern, 24,2,9; Rockdale, 7857; Ryde, 3222; St Peter's, 5906; Vaucluse, 1152; Waterloo, 9609;9609; Waverley, 12,342; Willoughby, 6004; Woollahra, 12,351.
As regards local government, the country is divided into municipalities or counties, which possess a certain amount of self-government.
These urban municipalities are towns which for their local government are independent of the counties in which they are situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns.
The administration of the municipalities is carried on by an official appointed by the king, aided by a representative body.
The semi-military organization of these divisions, which existed under the South African republic, has been abolished, and field-cornets, who are nominated by the provincial government, are purely civil officials charged with the registration of voters, births and deaths, the maintenance of public roads, &c. The chief local authorities are the municipal bodies, many " municipalities " being rural areas centred round a small town.
The Witwatersrand municipalities are for certain purposes combined into one authority, and representatives of these municipalities, together with representatives of the chamber of mines, compose the Rand water board.
The debt of London, like that of other municipalities, has considerably increased and shows a tendency to go on increasing, although certain safeguards against too ready borrowing have been imposed.
In March1298-1299letters were sent from " the Mayor and Commune of the City of London " to the municipalities of Bruges, Caen and Cambray.
While many continental municipalities were becoming more democratic in the 14th century, those of England were drifting towards oligarchy, towards government by a close "select body."
The upper chamber is composed of all the princes of the reigning family who are of full age; the chiefs of the mediatized families; the archbishop of Freiburg; the president -of the Protestant Evangelical church; a deputy from each of the universities and from the technical high school, eight members elected by the territorial nobility for four years, three representatives of the chamber of commerce, two of that of agriculture, one of that of trades, two mayors of municipalities, one burgomaster of lesser towns, one member of a district council, and eight members (two of them legal functionaries) nominated by the grand-duke.
For administrative purposes, the province is divided into 21 districts and 4 towns with autonomous municipalities, namely Graz (pop. 138,370), the capital, Cilli (6743), Marburg (24,501) and Pettau (4227).
There are also on the Rand, and dependent on the gold-mining, three towns possessing separate municipalities - Germiston and Boksburg, respectively 9 m.
- There is an ample supply of water to the town and mines, under a water board representing all the Rand municipalities and the mining companies.
Though these are managed by various municipalities, there is practically no break in the buildings for the whole distance.
In 1888 the number of licences to be granted in municipalities voting in favour of their issue was limited to one for each moo inhabitants, except in Boston, where one licence may be issued for every 500 inhabitants.
The vote varies from year to year, and it is not unusual for a certain number of municipalities to change from " licence " to " no licence," and vice versa.
Especially has the commonwealth undertaken certain noteworthy enterprises as the agent of the several municipalities in the immediate vicinity of Boston, constituting what is known as the Metropolitan District; as, for example, in bringing water thither from the Nashua River at Clinton, 40 m.
Although the tendency in Massachusetts is towards chartering as cities " towns " which have a population of 12,000 or more, the democratic institution of the town-meeting persists in many large municipalities which are still technically towns.'
In 1894 manual training was made a part of the curriculum in all municipalities having 20,000 inhabitants.
Municipalities are incorporated under general laws, and cities are divided into three classes, the first class including those having a population of 20,000 or more, the second class those having a population between 10,000 and 20,000, the third class those having a population between 1500 and 10,000.
For a long period the different parts were under separate municipalities, the new town uniting with the old in 1560, and the Bergstadt with both in 1824.
Of these municipalities Wyandotte, the oldest, was originally settled by the Wyandotte Indians in 1843; it was platted and settled by whites in 1857; and was incorporated as a town in 1858, and as a city in 1859.
The larger municipalities with the population of each in 1905 were: Fargo (12,512), Grand Forks (10,127), Jamestown (5093), Bismarck, the capital, (4913), Minot (4125), Valley City (4059), Dickinson (3188), Wahpeton (2742), Mandan (2714), Grafton (2423) and Devils Lake (2367); in 1905 there were fifteen other municipalities each with a population of more than 1000.
The chief source of revenue for the state, counties and municipalities is the general property tax.
The Convention also sent representatives on mission into Vendee to effect the purging of the municipalities, the reorganization of the national guards in the republican towns, and the active prosecution of the revolutionary propaganda.
The municipalities are divided into six classes according to population, a classification which permits considerable special local legislation in spite of the constitutional inhibition.
The states are generally subdivided into distritos (districts) or partidos, and these into municipios (municipalities) which correspond to the townships of the American system.
Of these, 603 were supported by the national government, 5240 by municipalities, 2260 by private enterprise, 117 by the Catholic church, and the remainder by Protestant denominations.
The revenues and expenditures of the states and municipalities in 1904, the latest date available, aggregated as follows: Revenue.
Two classes of praefecti are found in the municipalities under the Empire, both of which are to be distinguished from the officials who bore that name in the municipia before the Social War.