The Mogul emperors of India occasionally interfered in these provinces, notably Shah Jahan in 1646; but, finding the difficulty of maintaining so distant a frontier, they abandoned it to the Uzbeg princes.
He wasted the treasure accumulated by Ala-ud-din in purchasing the retirement of the Mogul hordes, who had already made their appearance in the Punjab.
When the Mogul Empire absorbed the Bijapur kingdom he defied the emperor.
As the Mogul Empire broke up, some separate Mahommedan powers rose upon its ruins.
Ahmednagar was incorporated in the Mogul empire in 1598, Bijapur in 1686, and Golconda in 1688.
The Mahommedans of India may be divided into two classes, pure Mahommedans from the Mogul and Pathan conquering races, and Mahommedan converts, who differ very little from the surrounding Hindu population from which they originally sprang.
All us mogul-jumping slalomers know these terms.
The Mahrattas at this time had got possession of the person of the Mogul emperor, Shah Alam, from whom Clive obtained the grant of Bengal in 1765, and to whom he assigned in return the districts of Allahabad and Kora and a tribute of 30o,000.
In 1685 the fort was taken by the emperor Aurangzeb, and Dharwar, on the break-up of the Mogul empire, fell under the sway of the peshwa of Poona.
Then several chiefs carved out principalities of their own from among the ruins of the Mogul Empire.
It was then included in the dominions of Nizam-ul-mulk, the nominal viceroy of the great Mogul in the Deccan, from whom again it was subsequently conquered by Hyder Ali of Mysore.
1 599, it was incorporated with the Mogul empire.
The climax of Mahommedan work in India is reached in that of the Mogul emperors at Agra, Delhi and Fatehpur-Sikri, in which there is a very close resemblance in design to the mosques of Syria, Egypt, and Persia; the four-centred arch, which is in the Mogul style, finds general acceptance, and was probably derived from Persian sources.
1626), but in the first year of Shah Jahan's reign it was again brought under the sway of the Mogul empire.
ABUL FAZL, wazir and historiographer of the great Mogul emperor, Akbar, was born in the year A.D.
Babar, the fifth in descent from Timur, was originally prince of Ferghana, but conquered Samarkand and northern India, where he founded the Mogul (Mughal) empire.
Their name again figures in Indian history at the break up of the Mogul empire, when two Sayad brothers created and dethroned emperors at their will (1714-1720).
BAHADUR SHAH I., a Mogul emperor of Hindustan, A.D.
The name Great Mogul has been frequently applied to this stone.
It formed the chief seat of the government of the Deccan provinces of the Mogul empire till Shah Jahan removed the capital to Aurangabad in 1635.
His great expedition to Delhi was undertaken in 1756 in order to avenge himself on the Great Mogul for the recapture of Lahore.
The raj was founded in 1657 by Abu Ra Kapur, of the Kapur Khatri family of Kotli in Lahore, Punjab, whose descendants served in turn the Mogul emperors and the British government.
BABER, or Babar (1483-1530), a famous conqueror of India and founder of the so-called Mogul dynasty.
In India the nawab of Oudh was long known as the nawab wazir, the title of minister to the Mogul emperor having become hereditary in the family.
Sangram Sah died in 1530; and the break up of his dominion began with the enforced cession to the Mogul emperor by Chandra Sah (1563-1575) of Saugor and Damoh and of that portion of his territories which afterwards formed the state of Bhopal.
Two causes principally had tended to weaken the Mogul power.
At the close of the long contest the Mogul power was weaker, the Mahratta stronger than at first.
JAHANGIR, or Jehangir (1569-1627), Mogul emperor of Delhi, succeeded his father Akbar the Great in 1605.
Such double allegiance is apt to exist in times of transition from one sovereignty to another; for example, in the 18th century, in the British possessions in India, the Mogul was said to exercise a personal sovereignty.
From 1411 to 1511 it grew in size and wealth; from 1512 to 1572 it declined with the decay of the dynasty of Gujarat; from 1572 to 1709 it renewed its greatness under the Mogul emperors; from 1709 to 1809 it dwindled with their decline; and from 1818 onwards it has again increased under British rule.
As his viceroy in Delhi he left a Rohilla chief in whom he had all confidence, but scarcely had he crossed the Indus when the Mahommedan wazir drove the chief from the city, killed the Great Mogul and set another prince of the family, a tool of his own, upon the throne.
The last dynasty ended with Sultan Jalal-ud-din, during whose reign (1221-1231) a division of the Mogul army of Jenghiz Khan first invaded Khwarizm, while the khan himself was besieging Bamian; Jalal-ud-din, deserted by most of his troops, retired to Ghazni, where he was pursued by Jenghiz Khan, and again retreating towards Hindustan was overtaken and driven across the Indus.
The second governorship of Clive was marked by the transfer of the diwani or financial administration from the Mogul emperor to the Company, and by the enforcement of stringent regulations against the besetting sin of peculation.
As a separate state it dates only from about 1730, the time of the dismemberment of the Mogul empire.
Both entered India as commercial companies, but the disorganized condition of the Mogul empire necessitated the use of military force to protect their interests, and allured them to conquest.
The great Mogul emperor's impoverished and enfeebled successor was fain to recognize the Mahratta state by a formal instrument.
Under their peaceful rule their territories flourished, until the weakening of the Mogul empire and the rise of the predatory Bundela and Mahratta powers, with the organized forces of which their semi-barbarous feudal levies were unable to cope, brought misfortune upon them.
It was during his reign that the Mogul power attained its greatest prosperity.
As king of Poland; the electoral sword of Saxony; a group by Dinglinger, in gold and enamel, representing the court of the grand mogul Aurungzebe, and consisting of 132 figures upon a plate of silver 4 ft.
1 3441 345 Great famine in India, when the Mogul emperor was unable to obtain the necessaries for his household.
The spirit of independence which always characterized them soon brought them into collision with the Mogul empire.
Side of the same range; these two districts being among the head waters of the Rio de San Francisco and its tributaries; (3) Diamantina, on and about the watershed separating the Rio de San Francisco from the Rio Jequitinhonha; and (4) Grao Mogul, nearly 200 m.
The Mogul Baber in his memoirs (1526) relates how in his conquest of India he captured at Agra the great stone weighing 8 mishkals, or 320 ratis, which may be equivalent to about 187 carats.
He suggests that the other and larger diamond of antiquity which was given to Shah Jahan may be one which is now in the treasury of Teheran, and that this is the true Great Mogul which was confused by Tavernier with the one he saw.
From the time of his conquest of Hindustan (victory at Panipat, April 21, 1526), Kabul and Kandahar may be regarded as part of the empire of Delhi under the (so-called) Mogul dynasty which Baber founded.
Under the Mogul empire, as organized by Akbar the Great, the share of the state was fixed at one-third of the gross produce of the soil; and a regular army of tax-collectors was permitted to intervene between the cultivator and the supreme government.
If the Hindu village system may be praised for its justice, the Mogul farming system had at least the merit of efficiency.
But the invasion of Timur left no permanent impress upon the history of India, except in so far as its memory fired the imagination of Baber, the founder of the Mogul dynasty.
In 1526 Baber, the fifth in descent from Timur, and also the fifth Mahommedan conqueror, invaded India at the instigation of the governor of the Punjab, won the victory of Panipat over Ibrahim, the last of the Lodi dynasty, and founded the Mogul empire, which lasted, at least in name, until 1857.
Despite frequent internal strife, the sultans of the Deccan retained their independence until conquered by the Mogul emperor Aurangzeb in the latter half of the 17th century.
From Akbar's accession to Aurangzeb's death, a period of 151 years, the Mogul was India's master.
The range of the Western Ghats enabled the Mahrattas to rise against their Mahommedan conquerors, to reassert their Hindu nationality against the whole power of the Mogul Empire, and to establish in its place an empire of their own.
The three Gond principalities of Garha-Mandla, Deogarh and Chanda were nominally subject to the Mogul emperors.
AURANGZEB (1618-1707), one of the greatest of the Mogul emperors of Hindustan, was the third son of Shah Jahan, and was born in November 1618.
The entire vocabulary of the present land system is borrowed from the Mogul administration.
Two periods may be distinguished, namely the Turki (120o-1526) and the Mogul empire.
Amidst such confusion the authority of the Mogul empire rapidly disappeared, but it lasted as a name till the Mutiny (1857).
The tomb of Humayun is one of the finest Mogul monuments in the neighbourhood of Delhi, and it was here that the last of the Moguls, Bahadur Shah, was captured by Major Hodson in 1857.
1627-1658), Mogul emperor of Delhi, the fifth of the dynasty.
The Bharatpur chiefs took an active part in the disturbances consequent on the declining power of the Mogul emperors, sometimes on the imperial side, and at others with the Mahrattas.
From this it may be guessed what occurred in the centuries under Mogul rule, when for years there was no rain, when famine lasted for three, four or twelve years, and entire cities were left without an inhabitant.
Guru Arjan, who was in charge of the great Sikh temple at Amritsar, received copious offerings and became a man of wealth and influence, while the sixth guru became a military leader, and was frequently at warfare with the Mogul authorities.
Turks and Mongols alike were doubtless included under the term Scyth by the ancients, and as Tatars by more modern writers, insomuch that the Turkish dynasty at Delhi, founded by Baber, is usually termed the Mogul dynasty, although there can be no distinction traced between the terms Mogul and Mongol.