The most widely spread of the sedimentary beds belong to the Miocene period.'
The Seriema must be regarded as the not greatly modified heir of some very old type, such as one may fairly imagine to have lived before many of the existing groups of birds had become differentiated, and it is probable that the extinct birds known as Stereornithes, and in particular the fossil Phororhachos from the Miocene of Patagonia, were closely allied to its ancestors.
In Tertiary times the Central Plateau was the theatre of great volcanic activity from the Miocene, to the Pleistocene periods, and many of the volcanoes remain as nearly perfect cones to the present day.
The Miocene and Pliocene are absent.
It occurs in Miocene deposits and is also found washed up by the sea near Catania.
It is found in flat rolled pieces, irregularly distributed through a blue clay probably of Miocene age.
70 contained Sequoia, planes, maples and magnolias, and closely agrees with the Miocene flora of central Europe.
This was accompanied in Europe by a drastic weeding out of Miocene types, ultimately leaving the flora pretty much as it now exists.
This, as will be explained, did not take place to anything like the same extent in North America, the vegetation of which still preserves a more Miocene facies.
Torreya, now confined to North America and Japan, still lingered,- as did Ocotea, now profusely developed in the tropics, but in north temperate regions only existing in the Canaries: the evergreen oaks, so characteristic of the Miocene, were reduced to the existing Quercus hex.
In the Old World the boreal zone is almost sharply cut off and afforded no means of escape for the Miocene vegetation when the climate became more severe.
In North America there is no such barrier: the Miocene flora has been able to escape by migration the fluctuations of climate and to return when they ameliorated.
While it has been customary to describe the Miocene flora of Europe as of a North American type, it would be more accurate to describe the latter as having in great measure preserved its Miocene character.
We must, however, agree with Starkie Gardner that it is only Miocene as regards its present position, which was originally farther north, and that its actual origin was much earlier.
Glacial elimination has been less severe, or rather there has been, at any rate on the Atlantic side, an unimpeded return of Miocene types.
Labrusca, reappears in Japan), and others; an assemblage, as long ago pointed out by Asa Gray, which can only be paralleled in the Chino-japanese region, another centre of preservation of Miocene types.
The Mediterranean basin has been a centre of preservation of Mibcene vegetation: the oleander is said to have been found in local deposits of even earlier age, and the hoim oak (Quercus hex) is the living representative of a Miocene ancestor.
It is remarkable that the characteristic features of the Miocene flora, which in other partm of the world have spread and developed southwards, are conspicususly absent from the African tropical flora.
It is no exaggeration to say that the genus, often even the species, can be determined from almost any recent bone, but in the case of Miocene, and still more, of Eocene fossils, we have often to deal with strange families, which either represent an extinct side branch, or which connect several recent groups with each other.
There were, for instance, trogons, secretary-birds, parrots, and other now Ethiopian forms in Miocene France.
The Miocene has yielded by far the greatest number of bird-bones, including even eggs and imprints of feathers.
For instance, from the lower Miocene beds of Allier and Puy-de-Dome MilneEdwards has described about so species.
A similarly mixed avifauna has been found in the mid-Miocene beds of various other parts of France, Germany and Italy.
Instead of the age of lower Eocene, as had been stated originally, these beds are not older than mid-Miocene, and not a few of the bones are of a much younger, even latest Tertiary date.
Mesembriornis, Miocene or Pliocene of Argentina.
Here also Pelagornis, Miocene of France; Argillornis and probably Odontopteryx from the London Clay.
Serpentariidae, secretary-bird, Ethiopian; Miocene, France.
Trogon gallicus, Miocene of France.
The sulphur occurs in Miocene marls and limestone, associated with.
An important zone of sulphur-bearing Miocene rocks occurs on the east side of the Apennines, constituting a great part of the province of Forli and part of Pesaro.
Nodular forms of sulphur occur in Miocene marls near Radoboj in Croatia, and near Swoszowic, south of Cracow.
Jukes-Browne and Harrison ascribe the Scotland beds to the Eocene or Oligocene period, the Oceanic series to the Miocene, the Bissex Hill marls to the Pliocene, and the coral limestones partly to the Pliocene and partly to the Pleistocene.
Crassum) have been found in the Miocene deposits of France.
There is an axial zone of Cretaceous and Lower Eocene, and this is flanked on each side by the Upper Eocene and the Miocene, while the valley of the Irrawaddy is occupied chiefly by the Pliocene.
Along the southern part of the Arakan coast the sea spreads over the western Miocene zone.
The Miocene beds are also marine and are characterized by an abundant molluscan fauna.
Flint chips, which appear to have been fashioned by hand, are said to have been found in the Miocene beds, but to prove the existence of man at so early a period would require stronger evidence than has yet been brought forward.
Intrusions of a serpentine-like rock break through the Miocene strata north of Bhamo, and similar intrusions occur in the western ranges.
The petroleum of Burma occurs in the Miocene beds, one of the best-known fields being that of Yenangyaung.
Eocene nummulitic beds occur, but the deposits are mostly of Miocene age.
Five subdivisions may be recognised in the Miocene deposits, corresponding with five different stages in the evolution of southern Europe.
The geological sequence of events appears to have been the following: - After the deposition of the Eocene (or Oligocene) limestone - which reposes upon a floor of basalts and trachytes - basalts and basic tuffs were ejected, over which, during a period of very slow depression, orbitoidal limestones of Miocene age - which seem to make up the great mass of the island - were deposited; then elapsed a long period of rest, during which the atoll condition existed and the guano deposit was formed; from then down to the present time there has succeeded a series of sea-level subsidences, resulting in the formation of the terraces and the accummulation of the detritus now seen on the first inland cliff, the old submarine slope of the island.