The translator was Tsubouchi Shyo, one of the greatest writers of the Meiji era.
Japanese journalistic writing in these early years of Meiji was marred by extreme and pedantic classicism.
Thus, in the early years of the Meiji era, there was a period of complete prostitution.
The vehicles chiefly employed in ante-Meiji days were ox-carriages, norimono, kago and carts drawn by hand.
These compilations together with the Nikon Gwaishi (History of Japan Outside the Court), written by Rai Sanyo and published in I827~ constituted the chief sources of historical knowledge before the Meiji era.
He also brought out the first literary periodical published in Japan, namely, the Waseda Bungaku, so called because Tsubouchi was professor of literature in the Waseda University, an institution founded by Count Okuma, whose name cannot be omitted from any history of Meiji literature, not as an author but as a patron.
This departure from established canons must be traced to the influence of the short-lived academy of Italian art established by the Japanese government early in the Meiji era.
During the first 40 years of the Meiji era numerous meteorological stations were established.
But it was not until the Meiji era that history, in the modern sense of the tei~m, began to be written.
But with the advent of the new regimen in Meiji days there arose a desire for social plays depicting the life of the modern generation, and as these croppy dramas (zampatsumono)so called in allusion to the European method of cutting the hair closewere not included in the repertoire of the orthodox theatre, amateur troupes (known as sOshi-yakusha) were organized to fill the void.
They are charmingly simple and graceful, and they have been rendered into English again and again since the beginning of the Meiji era.
As illustrating the rapid development of familiarity with foreign authors, a Japanese retrospect of the Meiji era notes that whereas Macaulays Esfays were ii the curriculum of the Imperial University in 1881-1882, they were studied, five or six years later, in secondary schools, and pupils of the latter were able to read with understanding the works of Goldsmith, Tennyson and Thackeray.
But as European and American collectors became better acquainted with the capacities of the pre-Meiji potters, the great inferiority of these new specimens was recognized, and the prices commanded by the old wares gradually appreciated.
But the Meiji era has had its Zeshin, and it had in 1909 Shirayama Fukumatsu, Kawanabe ltchO, Ogawa ShOmin, Uematsu HOmin, Shibayama SOichi, Morishita Morihachi and other lesser experts, all masters in designing and execution.
The only branch of the lacquerers art that can be said to have shown any marked development in the Meiji era is that in which parts of the decorative scheme consist of objects in gold, silver, shakudo, shibuichi, iron, or, above all, ivory or mother- N
Prince Iwakura, one of the leaders of the Meiji statesmen, persuaded the feudatories to employ a part of the bonds as capital for railway construction, and thus the first private railway company was formed in Japan under the name Nippon tetsudo kaisha (Japan railway company), the treasury guaranteeing 8% on the paid-up capital for a period of 15 years.