Its trade was mainly directed towards Sicily, where Megarian colonies were established at Hybla (Megara Hyblaea) and Selinus, and towards the Black Sea, in which region the Megarians were probably i As we have seen, it was mentioned in 1726 by Valentyn, and a young example' was in 1830 described and figured by Quoy and Gaimard (Voy.
Simultaneously Megarian commerce in Sicily began to be supplanted by Corinth and Corcyra.
It is not quite easy to see why he abandoned this successful policy in order to hasten on a war with Sparta, and neither the Corcyrean alliance nor the Megarian decree seems justified by the facts as known to us, though commercial motives may have played a part which we cannot now gauge.
TIMON (c. 320-230), of Phlius, Greek sceptic philosopher and satirical poet, a pupil of Stilpo the Megarian and Pyrrho of Elis.
Also the articles Megarian School; Phaedo; Stilpo.
It was founded by a Megarian colony, which soon subjugated the native Mariandynians and extended its power over a considerable territory.
DIODORUS CRONUS (4th century B.C.), Greek philosopher of the Megarian school.
Like the rest of the Megarian school he revelled in verbal quibbles, proving that motion and existence are impossible.
Apart from these verbal gymnastics, Diodorus did not differ from the Megarian school.
1869); and bibliography appended to article Megarian School.
MEGARIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY.
Two main elements went to make up the Megarian doctrine.
This philosopher, a man of striking and attractive personality, succeeded in fusing the Megarian dialectic with Cynic naturalism.
The captious logic of the Megarian school was indeed in some cases closely related to sceptical results.
In the Megarian school, first Eubulides quarrelled with him and calumniated him (Diog.
109) in his lifetime; but the attack was on his life, not on his writings: afterwards Stilpo wrote a dialogue ('ApcvToTEArts), which may have been a criticism of the Aristotelian philosophy from the Megarian point of view; but he outlived Aristotle thirty years.
STILPO (STILPON], Greek philosopher of the Megarian school, was a contemporary of Theophrastus and Crates.
Intellectually in agreement with the Megarian dialectic, he followed the practical ethics of the Cynics both in theory and in practice.
Eretria was the birthplace of the tragedian Achaeus and of the "Megarian" philosopher Menedemus.
EUCLID [EUCLEIDES], of Megara, founder of the Megarian (also called the eristic or dialectic) school of philosophy, was born c. 450 B.C., probably at Megara, though Gela in Sicily has also been named as his birthplace (Diogenes Lacrtius ii.
For his doctrine (a combination of the principles of Parmenides and Socrates) see Megarian School.
This outrageous demand was followed by three others - that the Athenians should (I) withdraw from Potidaea, (2) restore autonomy to Aegina, and (3) withdraw the embargo on Megarian commerce.
EUBULIDES, a native of Miletus, Greek philosopher and successor of Eucleides as head of the Megarian school.
Again, as the Socratics - Plato himself, when he established himself at the Academy, being no exception - were, like their master, educators rather than philosophers, and in their teaching laid especial stress upon discussion, they, too, were doubtless regarded as sophists, not by Isocrates only, but by their contemporaries in general; and it may be conjectured that the disputatious tendencies of the Megarian school made it all the more difficult for Plato and others to secure a proper appreciation of the difference between dialectic, or discussion with a view to the discovery of truth, and eristic, or discussion with a view to victory.
Pointing out that the sophists of that dialogue " profess Eis ap€riffs E7rt,u XELav 7rporpNiaL by means of dialogue," that ' they challenge the interlocutor inr w Xoyov," that " their examples are drawn from common objects and vulgar trades," that " they maintain positions that we know to have been held by Megarians and Cynics," he infers that " what we have here presented to us as ' sophistic ' is neither more nor less than a caricature of the Megarian logic "; and further, on the ground that " the whole conception of Socrates and his effect on his contemporaries, as all authorities combine to represent it, requires us to assume that his manner of discourse was quite novel, that no one before had systematically attempted to show men their ignorance of what they believed themselves to know," he is " disposed to think that the art of disputation which is ascribed to sophists in the Euthydemus and the Sophistes (and exhaustively analysed by Aristotle in the HEpi originated entirely with Socrates, and that he is altogether responsible for the form at least of this second species of sophistic."
Megarian School Of Philosophy >>
It was a Megarian colony founded on a site so obviously inferior to that which was within view on the opposite shore, that it received from the oracle the name of "the City of the Blind."
Four distinct philosophical schools trace their immediate origin to the circle that gathered round Socrates - the Megarian, the Platonic, the Cynic and the Cyrenaic. The impress of the master is manifest on all, in spite of the wide differences that divide them; they all agree in holding the most important possession of man to be wisdom or knowledge, and the most important knowledge to be knowledge of Good.
In 449 the war was ended by a five years' truce, but after Athens had lost her mainland empire by the battle of Coronea and the revolt of Megara a thirty years' peace was concluded, probably in the winter 446-445 B.C. By this Athens was obliged to surrender Troezen, Achaea and the two Megarian ports, Nisaea and Pegae, but otherwise the status quo was maintained.
Later he was diverted to philosophy by the works of Democritus, and became acquainted with the Megarian dialectic through Bryson, pupil of Stilpo.
(For its relation to the New Academy and to scepticism in general see Scepticism and Megarian School Of Philosophy.) See histories of philosophy by Zeller, Erdmann, Ueberweg; Ritter and Preller, § 364; Waddington, Pyrrhon et le pyrrhonisme (1877); Zimmermann, Darstellung d.