ARCHIMEDES (c. 287 -212 B.C.), Greek mathematician and inventor, was born at Syracuse, in Sicily.
Tobit ben Korra (836-901), born at Harran in Mesopotamia, an accomplished linguist, mathematician and astronomer, rendered conspicuous service by his translations of various Greek authors.
The first notable Arabian mathematician was Mahommed ben Musa al-Khwarizmi, who flourished in the reign of Mamun.
LUIGI CREMONA (1830-1903), Italian mathematician, was born at Pavia on the 7th of December 1830.
THOMAS GALLOWAY (1796-1851), Scottish mathematician, was born at Symington, Lanarkshire, on the 26th of February 1796.
FRANZ ERNST NEUMANN (1798-1895), German mineralogist, physicist and mathematician, was born at Joachimstal on the Il th of September 1798.
CHARLES LUTWIDGE DODGSON (LEWIS CARROLL] (1832-1898), English mathematician and author, son of the Rev. Charles Dodgson, vicar of Daresbury, Cheshire, was born in that village on the 27th of January 1832.
PAOLO FRISI (1728-1784), Italian mathematician and astronomer, was born at Milan on the 13th of April 1728.
It might be said that Laplace was a great mathematician by the original structure of his mind, and became a great discoverer through the sentiment which animated it.
JOHN NAPIER (1550-1617), Scottish mathematician and inventor of logarithms, was born at Merchiston near Edinburgh in 1550, and was the eighth Napier of Merchiston.
About 1136), was a mathematician, astronomer and philosopher much studied in the middle ages.
Anzeiger, 1760), and the Alsatian mathematician, J.
JEAN LE ROND D ALEMBERT' (1717-1783), French mathematician and philosopher, was born at Paris in November 1717.
- To find a square number which remains a square after the addition and subtraction of 5, put to our mathematician in presence of the emperor by John of Palermo, who, perhaps, was quite enough Leonardo's friend to set him such problems only as he had himself asked for.
One stirring social incident at least marked this part of his life, for, during the revolutionary insurrection in March 1848, the young mathematician, as a member of a company of student volunteers, kept guard in the royal palace from 9 o'clock on the morning of the 24th of March till 1 o'clock on the afternoon of the following day.
JOSEPH LOUIS LAGRANGE (1736-1813), French mathematician, was born at Turin, on the 25th of January 1736.
Euler's eulogium was enhanced by his desire to quit Berlin, d'Alembert's by his dread of a royal command to repair thither; and the result was that an invitation, conveying the wish of the "greatest king in Europe" to have the "greatest mathematician" at his court, was sent to Turin.
GEORGE BOOLE (1815-1864), English logician and mathematician, was born in Lincoln on the 2nd of November 1815.
EVARISTE GALOIS (1811-1832), French mathematician, was born on the 25th of October 1811, and killed in a duel on the 31st of May 1832.
JACOPO FRANCESCO RICCATI, Count (1676-1754), Italian mathematician, was born at Venice on the 8th of May 1676, and died at Treviso on the 15th of April 17 54.
1575-1660), English mathematician, was born at Eton, and educated there and at King's College, Cambridge, of which he became fellow.
Mechanics (including dynamical astronomy) is that subject among those traditionally classed as "applied" which has been most completely transfused by mathematics - that is to say, which is studied with the deductive spirit of the pure mathematician, and not with the covert inductive intention overlaid with the superficial forms of deduction, characteristic of the applied mathematician.
LEONARDO OF PISA (LEONARDUS PISANUS Or Fibonacci), Italian mathematician of the 13th century.
CHRISTIAAN HUYGENS (1629-1695), Dutch mathematician, mechanician, astronomer and physicist, was born at the Hague on the 14th of April 1629.
It was eagerly welcomed by the Berlin mathematician, who had the generosity to withhold from publication his own further researches on the subject, until his youthful correspondent should have had time to complete and opportunity to claim the invention.
Napier's priority in the publication of the logarithms is unquestioned and only one other contemporary mathematician seems to have conceived the idea on which they depend.
HENRY JOHN STEPHEN SMITH (1826-1883), English mathematician, was born in Dublin on the 2nd of November 1826, and was the fourth child of his parents.
Even before this, however, he had shown a strong inclination for natural science, and this had been fostered by his intimacy with a "self-taught philosopher, astronomer and mathematician," as Sir Walter Scott called him, of great local fame - James Veitch of Inchbonny, who was particularly skilful in making telescopes.
TARTAGLIA, or [[Tartalea, Niccolo]] (c. 1506-1559), Italian mathematician, was born at Brescia.
In analytical invention, and mastery over the calculus, the Turin mathematician was admittedly unrivalled.
PIERRE SIMON LAPLACE, MARQUIS DE (1749-1827), French mathematician and astronomer, was born at Beaumont-en-Auge in Normandy, on the 28th of March 1749.
The first extant work which approaches to a treatise on algebra is by Diophantus, an Alexandrian mathematician, who flourished about A.D.
Giordano was distinguished both as a mathematician and an architect.
PRICE, BARTHOLOMEW (1818-1898), English mathematician and educationist, was born at Coln St Denis, Gloucestershire, Priapulus caudatus Lam.
"BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL (1872-), English mathematician and philosopher, second son of Viscount Amberley and grandson of the 1st Earl Russell, was born at Chepstow May 18 1872.
GILLES PERSONNE ROBERVAL (or [[Personier) De]] (1602-1675), French mathematician, was born at Roberval, near Beauvais, on the 8th of August 1602.
COLIN MACLAURIN (1698-1746), Scottish mathematician, was the son of a clergyman, and born at Kilmodan, Argyllshire.
GEORG FRIEDRICH BERNHARD RIEMANN (1826-1866), German mathematician, was born on the 17th of September [[Xxiii.
Ganessa, an eminent astronomer, mathematician and scholiast of Bhaskara, quotes this work and makes separate mention of the cuttaca (" pulveriser "), a device for effecting the solution of indeterminate equations.
GEORGE PEACOCK (1791-1858), English mathematician, was born at Thornton Hall, Denton, near Darlington, on the 9th of April 1791.
JEAN VICTOR PONCELET (1788-1867), French mathematician and engineer, was born at Metz on the 1st of July 1788.
Frankl; the pianist Moscheles, the dramatist Mosenthal, and the actor Sonnenthal, the mathematician Spitzer and the chess-player Steinitz are some of the most prominent names.
The only teacher whom he respected was a certain Petrus de Maharncuria Picardus, or of Picardy, probably identical with a certain mathematician, Petrus Peregrinus of Picardy, who is perhaps the author of a MS. treatise, De Magnete, contained in the Bibliotheque Imperiale at Paris.
There was a certain learned mathematician who sent his algebra, written in the Syriac language, to Alexander the Great, and he named it almucabala, that is, the book of dark or mysterious things, which others would rather call the doctrine of algebra.
The earliest Indian mathematician of whom we have certain knowledge is Aryabhatta, who flourished about the beginning of the 6th century of our era.
The fame of this astronomer and mathematician rests on his work, the Aryabhattiyam, the third chapter of which is devoted to mathematics.
RHETICUS, or RHAETICUS (1514-1576), a surname given to GEORGE JOACHIM, German astronomer and mathematician, from his birth at Feldkirch in that part of Tirol which was anciently the territory of the Rhaeti.
After completing these reductions, Airy made inquiries, before engaging in any theoretical investigation in connexion with them, whether any other mathematician was pursuing the subject, and learning that Hansen had taken it in hand under the patronage of the king of Denmark, but that, owing to the death of the king and the consequent lack of funds, there was danger of his being compelled to abandon it, he applied to the admiralty on Hansen's behalf for the necessary sum.
His name first came before the public in 1683, when a prospectus was published in Edinburgh entitled An Account of the Scottish Atlas, stating that "the Privy Council of Scotland has appointed John Adair, mathematician and skilfull mechanick, to survey the shires."
Dodgson periodically published mathematical works - An Elementary Treatise on Determinants (1867); Euclid, Book V., proved Algebraically (1874); Euclid and his Modern Rivals (1879), the work on which his reputation as a mathematician largely rests; and Curiosa Mathematica (1888).
JOHANN HEINRICH LAMBERT (1728-1777), German physicist, mathematician and astronomer, was born at Mulhausen, Alsace, on the 26th of August 1728.
On the other hand a map drawn on the surface of a sphere representing a terrestrial globe will prove true to nature, for it possesses, in combination, the qualities which the ingenuity of no mathematician has hitherto succeeded in imparting to a projection intended for a map of some extent, namely, equivalence of areas of distances and angles.