What James Martineau calls A Study of Religion is really in the main a re-statement of old theistic arguments.'
Of the cosmological proof; but Martineau follows a side modification of intuitionalism (Maine de Biran, &c.) in identifying cause with will.
In "God as perfection" Martineau handles the basis of ethics without reference to his own modification of the intuitionalist position (Types of Ethical Theory), according to which "good."
Martineau - especially in A Study of Religion.
(c) Theodicy - the tradition of Leibnitz is preserved (on libertarian lines) by Martineau (A Study of Religion, 1883).
He also dealt with the condemnation of Pope Honorius, carried on a controversial correspondence with John Stuart Mill, and took a leading part in the discussions of the Metaphysical Society, founded by Mr James Knowles, of which Tennyson, Huxley and Martineau were also prominent members.
He was the youngest son of Michel Etienne Turgot, "provost of the merchants" of Paris, and Madeleine Frangoise Martineau, and came of an old Norman family.
Ambleside, or its environs, was also the place of residence of Dr Arnold (of Rugby), who spent there the vacations of the last ten years of his life; and of Harriet Martineau, who built herself a house there in 1845.
The following is a selection from the literature of the subject: Harriet Martineau, The English Lakes (Windermere, 1858); Mrs Lynn Linton, The Lake Country (London, 1864); E.
Previous to his removal from West Roxbury to Boston Parker spent a year in Europe, calling in Germany upon Paulus, Gervinus, De Wette and Ewald, and preaching in Liverpool in the pulpits of James Martineau and J.
Valuable reviews of Parker's theological position and of his character and work have appeared - by James Martineau, in the National Review (April 1860), and J.
Sir Bartle Frere, then High Commissioner, who thought the award " one - sided and unfair to the Boers " (Martineau, Life of Frere, ii.
Of the German), by Russell Martineau and J.
Harriet Martineau, 2 vols., London, 18 53; 3 vols.
His son and grandson - respectively the great-grandfather and grandfather of James Martineau - were surgeons in the same city, while his father was a manufacturer and merchant.
Of his teachers, one, the Rev. Charles Wellbeloved, was, Martineau said, " a master of the true Lardner type, candid and catholic, simple and thorough, humanly fond indeed of the counsels of peace, but piously serving every bidding of sacred truth."
4 On leaving the college in 1827 Martineau returned to Bristol to teach in the school of Lant Carpenter; but in the following year he was ordained for a Unitarian church in Dublin, whose senior minister was a relative of his own.
In 1866 the chair of the philosophy of mind and logic in University College, London, fell vacant, and Martineau became a candidate.
But potent opposition was offered to the appointment of a minister of religion, and the chair went to George Croom Robertson - then an untried man - between whom and Martineau a cordial friendship came to exist.
Martineau, who was in his youth denied the benefit of a university education, yet in his age found famous universities eager to confer upon him their highest distinctions.
The life of Martineau was so essentially the life of the thinker, and was so typical of the century in which he lived and the society within which he moved, that he can be better understood through his spoken mind than through his outward history.
The 19th century had no more reverent thinker than Martineau; the awe of the Eternal was the very atmosphere that he breathed, and he looked at man with the compassion of one whose thoughts were full of God.
In one respect Martineau was singularly happy; he just escaped the active and, on the whole, belittling period of the old Unitarian controversy.
Channing (q.v.), whom Martineau had called " the inspirer of his youth," Theodore Parker had succeeded, introducing more radical ideas as to religion and a more drastic criticism of sacred history.
Newman, whose mind Martineau said was " critical, not prophetic, since without immediateness of religious vision," and whose faith is " an escape from an alternative scepticism, which receives the veto not of his reason but of his will," 6 as men for whose teachings and methods he had a potent and stimulating antipathy.
This was the problem which Martineau attempted to deal with in The Seat of Authority in Religion.
Carpenter, James Martineau, Theologian and Teacher (1905); J.
Crawford, Recollections of James Martineau (1903); A.
Jackson, James Martineau, a Biography and a Study (Boston, 1900); H.
Sidgwick, Lectures on the Ethics of Green, Spencer and Martineau (1902); and J.
Punshon, Hugh Price Hughes and Peter Mackenzie (Wesleyan); James Martineau (Unitarian).
Martineau, Church History in England from the Earliest Times to the Reformation (London, 1878); W.
Martineau, Types of Ethical Theory (2nd ed., 1886); F.
Martineau, Seat of Authority in Religion, bk.
Its first vice-principal was Miss Caroline Martineau, a friend and co-worker of Miss Cons, and the institution now has over a thousand members.
English moral philosophy cannot long tolerate a metaphysics which by merging all minds in one would destroy personality, personal causation and moral responsibility, as James Martineau well said.
But notwithstanding its illogicality, its tendency to underrate Nature as inferred from such idealistic premises, and its certain transition into a consistent idealism, hypothetical realism has, with little excuse, revived among us in the writings of Shadworth Hodgson, James Martineau and A.
James Martineau (q.v.) in A Study of Religion (1888), like Shadworth Hodgson, started from Kant, and tried to found on Martineau.
Yet Martineau adopted, as his view of the limits of human intelligence, that Kant was right in making space and time a priori forms of sense, but wrong in limiting them to sensations.
But in order to make space a form of external things, Martineau had to take the external in space, by which Kant meant one sensation out of another, in the very different meaning of the self here and the not-self there.
One cannot but feel regret at seeing the Reformed Churches blown about by every wind of doctrine, and catching at straws now from Kant, now from Hegel, and now from Lotze, or at home from Green, Caird, Martineau, Balfour and Ward in succession, without ever having considered the basis of their faith; while the Roman Catholics are making every effort to ground a Universal Church on a sane system of metaphysics.
Burgon, Lives of Twelve Good Men (1888-1889); James Martineau, Essays, Reviews and Addresses (London,1891), iii.
Now began what Harriet Martineau called "the martyr age in America."
Madison's home was peculiarly a centre for literary travellers in his last years; when he was eighty-three he was visited by Harriet Martineau, who reported her conversations with him in her Retrospect of Western Travel (1838).
Martineau, Types of Ethical Theory (Oxford, 1885); T.
The Short Treatise is of much interest to the student of Spinoza's philosophical development, for it represents, as Martineau says, "the first landing-place of his mind in its independent advance."
Martineau accepts Dugald Stewart's solution.
Neander, Harnack, Dr Armitage Robinson and James Martineau, whether it represents a real utterance of Christ and not rather the liturgical usage of the region in which the first gospel was compiled.
At home the teaching of James Martineau (1805-1900), resisted at first, was at length powerfully felt, seconded as it was by the influence of John James Tayler (1797-1869) and John Hamilton Thom (1808-1894).
Sometimes they consider moral intuition as determining the comparative excellence of conflicting motives (James Martineau), or the comparative quality of pleasures chosen (Laurie), which seems to be the same view in a hedonistic garb; others hold that what is intuitively perceived is the rightness or wrongness of individual acts - a view which obviously renders ethical reasoning practically superfluous.
Martineau's chief endeavour was, as he himself says, to interpret, to vindicate, and to systematize the moral sentiments, and if the actual exhibition of what is involved, e.g., in moral choice is the vindication of morality Martineau may be said to have been successful.
It is impossible, e.g., to accept his ordered hierarchy of " springs of action " without perceiving that the real principle upon which they can be arranged in order at all must depend upon considerations of circumstances and consequences, of stations and duties, with which a strict intuitionalism such as that of Martineau would have no dealing.'
And Martineau is curiously unsympathetic to the universal and social aspect of morality with which evolutionary and idealist moral philosophers are so largely occupied.
Martineau is much more in sympathy with idealism than Sidgwick, whose work consists in a restatement from a novel and independent standpoint of the Utilitarian position.
Martineau, Types of Ethical Theory (Oxford, 1885, 3rd ed.
Sidgwick, Ethics of Green, Spencer, Martineau (1902); D.