MANILA, the capital city and principal port of the Philippine Islands, situated on the W.
Terminal of the Manila & Dagupan railway.
The exports of manufactured tobacco, such as Manila cheroots, find their principal market in China, British India, Australasia and the United Kingdom, whilst of the leaf tobacco fully three-quarters goes to Spain.
Manila has a spring and summer hot season, an autumn and winter cooler season, a summer and autumn rainy season, and a winter and spring dry season.
It is, however, principally a cordage fibre, and in tensile strength it is second only to manila hemp; but it does not bear well the alternations of wet and dry to which ship-ropes are subject.
It is served by the Manila & Dagupan railway.
In Belgium and the north of France flat ropes of aloe fibre (Manila hemp or plantain fibre) are in high repute, being considered preferable by many colliery managers to wire, in spite of their great weight.
To the west is the broad expanse of Manila Bay, beyond which are the rugged Mariveles Mountains; to the eastward the city extends about half-way to Laguna de Bay, a lake nearly as large as Manila Bay and surrounded on three sides by mountains.
The typhoon warnings sent out from the Manila observatory annually save heavy loss of life and property.
Using these buoys to guide the direction of tow, a grapnel, a species of fivepronged anchor, attached to a strong compound rope formed of strands of steel and manila, is lowered to the bottom and dragged at a slow speed, as it were ploughing a furrow in the sea bottom, in a line at right angles to the cable route, until the behaviour of the dynamometer shows that the cable is hooked.
Among the imported flora are tea, Siberian coffee, cocoa, Ceara rubber (which has not done well), Manila hemp, teak, cocoanut and a number of ornamental trees, fruit-trees, vegetables and garden plants.
Bulacán is served by the Manila-Dagupan railway.
The cordage works are among the largest in the world, and consume immense quantities of sisal fibre imported from Mexico and manila from the Philippine Islands; binder-twine for binding wheat is one of the principal products.
Of Dagupan, the north terminus of the Manila & Dagupan railway.
Plain-laid manila cable a wire rope has in some cases been successfully substituted.
Honolulu is served by the Oahu railway, by electric lines to the principal suburbs, and by steamship lines to San Francisco, Seattle, Vancouver, Manila, Salina Cruz (Mexico), Victoria, Sydney, and Chinese and Japanese ports.
In commercial importance Iloilo ranks next to Manila among Philippine cities; it has manufactures of pina, jusi, coconut oil, lime, vinegar and various articles made from palm wood.
Balivag is served by an extension of the railway between Manila and Dagupan.
ABACA, or Abaka, a native name for the plant Musa textilis, which produces the fibre called Manila Hemp.
Cheroots come principally from Manila, but there are now large quantities imported into the United Kingdom from the East Indies and Burma.
New Spain in its widest meaning includes the audiencias or judicial districts of Manila, San Domingo and Guatemala, and the viceroy had some sort of authority over them: but in its narrower meaning it comprised the audiencia district of Mexico and the subordinate audiencia district of Guadalajara, which together extended from Chiapas and Guatemala to beyond the eastern boundary of the modern state of Texas and northwards, eventually, to Vancouver's Island.
The fact that the trade route to Manila passed through Vera Cruz, Mexico City and Acapulco entailed the settlement also of a few Chinese and Malays, chiefly on the Pacific coast.
In 1685-86 the Pacific coast was ravaged by Dampier and Swan, and in 1709 Woodes Rogers, with Dampier as pilot, captured the Manila treasure galleon, a feat repeated by Anson in 1743.
CAVITE, a fortified seaport, the capital of the province of Cavite, Luzon, Philippine Islands, and the seat of the principal Asiatic naval station of the United States, on a forked tongue of land in Manila Bay, 8 m.
Of the middle of the inhabited group, the distance to San Francisco is about 2100 m.; to Auckland, New Zealand, about 3810 m.; to Sydney, New South Wales, about 4410 m.; to Yokohama, about 3400 m.; to Hong-Kong, about 4920 m.; to Manila, about 4890 m.
In William Barlowe's Navigator's Supply, published in 1597, we read:- "Some fewe yeeres since, it so fell out that I had severall conferences with two East Indians which were brought into England by master Candish [[[Thomas Cavendish (Candish)|Thomas Cavendish]]], and had learned our language: The one of them was of Mamillia [[[Manila]]] in the Isle of Luzon, the other of Miaco in Japan.
The better sort of houses in Manila have two storeys, the lower one built of brick or stone and the upper one of wood, roofed with red Spanish tile or with corrugated iron; the upper storey contains the living-rooms, and the lower has servants' rooms, store-houses, stables, carriage-houses and poultry yards.
Connected with Manila by electric railway is Fort William McKinley, a U.S. army post in the hills five miles away, quartering about 3000 men.
Although Manila Bay is nearly landlocked, it is so large that in times of strong winds it becomes nearly as turbulent as the open sea, and it was formerly so shallow that vessels drawing more than 16 ft.
At the Manila observatory, about 1 m.
The public school system of Manila includes, besides the common schools and Manila high school, the American school, the Philippine normal school (1901), the Philippine school of arts and trades (1901), the Philippine medical school (1907) and the Philippine school of commerce (1908).
The Philippine government also maintains here a bureau of science which publishes the monthly Philippine Journal of Science, and co-operates with the Jesuits in maintaining, in Ermita, the Manila observatory (meteorological, seismological and astronomical), which is one of the best equipped institutions of the kind in the East.
In 1908 there were thirtyfour newspapers and periodicals published in the cit y, of which thirteen were Spanish, fourteen were English, two were Chinese, and five were Tagalog; the principal dailies were the Manila Times, Cablenews American, El Comercio, El Libertas, El Mercantil, El Renacimiento and La Democracia.
Manila is important chiefly for its commerce, and to make it the chief distributing point for American goods consigned to Eastern markets the American government undertook the harbour improvements, and abolished the tonnage dues levied under Spanish rule.
Manila is the greatest hemp market in the world; 110, 399 tons, valued at $19,444,769, were exported from the archipelago in 1906, almost all being shipped from Manila.
Manila is governed under a charter enacted in 1901 by the Philippine commission, and amended in 1903.
The Spanish city of Manila (named from " nilad," a weed or bush which grew in the locality) was founded by Legaspi in 1571.
At the beginning of the 17th century Manila had become the commercial metropolis of the Far East.
In 1837 the port of Manila was opened to foreign trade, and there was a steady but slow increase in prosperity up to about 1890.
About 1892 a large number of Filipinos in and near Manila formed a secret association whose object was independence and separation from Spain.
In August 1896 members of this association began an attack; and late in December the movement was reinforced as a result of the execution in Manila of Dr Jose Rizal y Mercado (1861-1896), a Filipino patriot.
On the 1st of May an American fleet under Commodore George Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed in Manila Bay.
Manila Hemp >>
The town is surrounded by an extensive and extremely fertile plain which produces very large quantities of rice as well as a great variety of tropical fruits, and a ready market for these products is found in Manila whither they are shipped by boat.
It is served by the Manila & Dagupan railway, and the bridge across the Rio Grande is one of the longest in the Philippines.
On the west coast are the Caraballos Occidentales north from the Gulf of Lingayen and the Zambales southward from that gulf to Manila Bay.
The Pampanga rises in the highlands on the north-east border, flows south by west, and discharges through several channels into Manila Bay.
D Catanduanes Environs of Manila Scale, 26° F PA NA C u !1
Inland from Manila Bay, is Laguna de Bay, the largest body of fresh water in the Philippines.
In the seven years1902-1908the microseismograph at Manila recorded 796 local earthquakes.
Plants valuable for their fibre number about 300, and among them is the abaca (Musa texilis), from the leaves of which Manila hemp is made.
At Manila the mean annual temperature is about 80° F., the range of mean monthly temperature 6.48°, from 77° in January to 83.48° in May; and the range of extremes (during the period from 1881 to 1902) 39.96° from 60.08° in January 1881 to Ioo 04° in May 1889.
In accordance with the monthly variations in temperature at Manila the year is divided into three seasons: temperate (November, December, January and February), hot (April, May and June) and intermediate (March, July, September and October).
The maximum daily range of temperature at Manila varies from 13.8° in June to 17.7° in December.
At Manila the monthly average of relative humidity ranges from 70.7° in April to 85.5° in September, and the annual average is 79.4°.
In the famous typhoon of the 10th of October 1882, the vortex of which passed over Manila, an immense amount of damage was done in the city.
The natives care little for the garden vegetables common to Europe and America, but in the vicinity of Manila and other large centres of population the Chinese grow many of these for consumption by European and American inhabitants.
There are many goats but only a few sheep. In one district near Manila duck-raising is of considerable importance, but the principal branch of the poultry industry consists in the raising of game-cocks for cock-fighting, which is the national sport.
The first railway in the Philippines was the line from Manila to Dagupan (120 m.) which was built by an English corporation under a guaranty of the Spanish government and was opened in 1892.
The drilling tools are suspended by an untarred manila rope, 2 in.
Congress, in a joint resolution, tendered its thanks to Commodore Dewey, and to the officers and men under his command, and authorized "the secretary of the navy to present a sword of honor to Commodore George Dewey, and cause to be struck bronze medals commemorating the battle of Manila Bay, and to distribute such medals to the officers and men of the ships of the Asiatic squadron of the United States."