Chandless (1862-1869) and of the Rio Madeira by Colonel G.
Careful study of insular faunas, such as that of Madeira by T.
Newfoundland, the West Indies, and the Falklands, and the chief oceanic islands are the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, the Cape Verde Islands, Ascension, St Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Bouvet Island.
Madeira has also its peculiar golden-crested wren (Regulus maderensis), and its peculiar pigeon (Columba trocaz), while two allied forms of the latter (C. laurivora and C. bollii) are found only in the Canaries.
A very old tradition suggests that the idea of such an earthly paradise was a reminiscence of some unrecorded voyage to Madeira and the Canaries, which are sometimes named Fortunatae Insulae by medieval map-makers.
The whole of this line, however, was subject to future adjustments, Peru claiming all that part of the Amazon valley extending eastward to the Madeira and lying between the Beni and the east and west boundary line agreed upon by Spain and Portugal in 1750 and 1777, which is near the 7th parallel.
He adopted a plan which had been organiza- found to succeed well in Madeira and the Azores, tion in dividing the country into hereditary captaincies, and Sao Vicente Piratininga, in the present province of Sao Paulo.
Cattle and the sugar-cane were at an early period introduced from Madeira, and here the other captaincies supplied themselves with both.
Evans, " The Rocks of the Cataracts of the River Madeira and the adjoining Portions of the Beni and Mamore," Quart.
That such inferiority may be expected to disappear is suggested by the success of vine-culture in Madeira and the Canary Islands.
Dom Enrique, Infante of Portugal, surnamed the Navigator (1394-1460) transported it about 1420, from Cyprus and Sicily to Madeira, whence it was taken to the Canaries in 1503, and thence to Brazil and Hayti early in the 16th century, whence it spread to Mexico, Cuba, Guadeloupe and Martinique, and later to Bourbon.
In the age of discovery the Portuguese and Spaniards became the great disseminators of the cultivation of sugar; the cane was planted in Madeira in 1420; it was carried to San Domingo in 1494; and it spread over the occupied portions of the West Indies and South America early in the 16th century.
Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.
6° 52' 15" S., which is half the distance between the mouth of the Mamore and the mouth of the Madeira, divides the Spanish and Portuguese possessions in this part of South America, according to the provisions of the treaty of San Ildefonso of 1777.
This line has been twice modified by treaties between Bolivia and Brazil, but without the consent of Peru, which claimed all the territory eastward to the Madeira between the above-mentioned line and the Beni-Madidi rivers, the line of demarcation following the Pablo-bamba, a small tributary of the Madidi, to its source, and thence in a straight line to the village of Conima, on Lake Titicaca.
Of the rivers farther south, which discharge into the Amazon through the Madeira, the Madre de Dios alone offers an extended navigable channel, together with some of its larger tributaries, such as the Heath and Chandless.
In the North Atlantic a strong submarine current flowing outward from the Mediterranean leaves the Strait of Gibraltar with a salinity of 38 per mille, and can be traced as far as Madeira and the Bay of Biscay in depths of from 600 to 2800 fathoms, still with a salinity of 35.6 per mille, whereas off the Azores at equal depths the salinity is from 0.5 to 0.7 per mille less.
Between Madeira and the Biscay Shelf, i.e.
Sempervivum has about so species in the mountains of central and southern Europe, in the Himalayas, Abyssinia, and the Canaries and Madeira; S.
As a straggler it has occurred within the Arctic Circle (as on the Varanger Fjord in Norway), as well as in Iceland and even Greenland; while it not unfrequently appears in Madeira and the Azores.
It is a native of the Canary Islands and Madeira, where it occurs abundantly in the wild state, and is of a greyish-brown colour, slightly varied with brighter hues, although never attaining the beautiful plumage of the domestic bird.
An event which is thought to have greatly influenced Hancock's subsequent career was the seizure of the sloop "Liberty" in 1768 by the customs officers for discharging, without paying the duties, a cargo of Madeira wine consigned to Hancock.
In 1877 arrangements were made for the importation of Portuguese families from the Azores and Madeira, and during the next ten years about 7000 of these people were brought to the islands; in 1906-1907 there was a second immigration from the Azores and Madeira of 1325 people.
Promoted rear-admiral a few days after this action, Hood was in 1807 entrusted with the operations against Madeira, which he brought to a successful conclusion, and a year later went to the Baltic, with his flag in the "Centaur," to take part in the war between Russia and Sweden.
Until 1853 wine was the staple product, and although even the finest brand (known as Vidonia) never equalled the best Madeira vintages, it was largely consumed abroad, especially in England.
Proust (Paris, 1909); Madeira and the Canary Islands, by A.
His change of plan was announced to the world at Madeira in Sept., and on Jan.
Among his publications are A Winter in Madeira and a Summer in Spain and Florence (1850), and Speeches and Occasional Addresses (1864).
As far as the United Kingdom is concerned, the Madeira wine industry is mainly of interest in that it was largely developed by and is still chiefly in the hands of British merchants.
This falling away in the taste for Madeira is partly ascribable to fashion and partly to the temporary devastation of the vineyards by the phylloxera in the middle of last century.
The output in 1906 amounted to 10,000 pipes (Madeira pipe =92 gallons) and the export to 6010 pipes, of which quantity 1951 pipes went to Germany, 1680 pipes to France, 796 pipes to Russia and 755 pipes to the United Kingdom.
Madeira, like sherry and port, is a fortified wine.
Much of the characteristic flavour of Madeira is due to this practice, which hastens the mellowing of the wine and also tends to check secondary fermentation inasmuch as it is, in effect, a mild kind of pasteurization.
It is somewhat similar in character to the wines of Madeira, but its character also recalls some of the sherry types.
He adduced the example of vines taken to the West Indies from Madeira, which have been found to succeed better than those taken directly from France.
Where the nervous system is exhausted, such warm and moist climates as Malaga, Madeira, Tenerife and Grand Canary are suitable.
Such patients are apt to suffer much from cough and laryngeal irritation in the cold, dry air of the Alps, whereas they live in comparative comfort on the Riviera, in the Canary Islands, Madeira or at Capri.
These totals do not include the inhabitants and area of the Azores and Madeira Islands, which are officially regarded as parts of continental Portugal.
These totals include the inhabitants of the Azores and Madeira, which together amounted to 406,865 in 1900.
The following table shows the value for five years of the exports, and of all imports not reexported (exclusive of coin and bullion): - In 1910 the principal exports, in order of value, were wine (chiefly port, common wines and Madeira), raw and manufactured cork, preserved fish, fruits and vegetables, cottons and yarn, copper ore, timber, olive oil, skins, grain and flour, tobacco and wool.
The House of Commons was composed of 148 members, representing the 26 electoral divisions of Portugal, the Azores and Madeira, which returned 113 elected members and 35 representatives of minorities, and of 7 members representing the colonies.
In 1910 the Azores comprised three districts and Madeira formed one.
His province includes Madeira, the Azores and the West African colonies.
Meanwhile colonization progressed in the Azores and Madeira, where sugar and wine were produced; above all, the gold brought home from Guinea stimulated the commercial energy of the Portuguese.
Diverse nature - protectorates such as Hormuz and Ternate in the Moluccas, colonies such as Goa and Madeira, captaincies under military rule such as Malacca, tributary states Rich as Kilwa, fortified factories as at Colombo and Cochin.
The demand for " Port " and " Madeira" was thus artificially stimulated to such an extent that almost the whole productive energy of Portugal was concentrated upon the wine and cork trades.
This is a part of the original colonial frontier, which extended down the Madeira to a point midway between the Beni and the Amazon, and then ran due W.
The south-east drainage basin, which is smaller and economically less important than that of the Madeira, discharges into the Paraguay and extends from the Sierras de Chiquitos south to the Argentine frontier, and from the Cordillera Oriental east to the Paraguay.
Brazil agreed to construct a railway around the falls of the Madeira (about 180 m.
The loss of her maritime department has left Bolivia with no other ports than those of Lake Titicaca (especially Guaqui, or Huaqui, which trades with the Peruvian port of Puno), and those of the Madeira and Paraguay rivers and their affluents.
Since then Bolivia's outlet to the Amazon is restricted to the Madeira river, the navigation of which is interrupted by a series of falls before Bolivian territory is reached.
The Bolivian port of entry for this trade, Villa Bella, is situated above the falls of the Madeira at the confluence of the Beni and Mamore, and is reached from the lower river by a long and costly portage.
Mathews, Up the Amazon and Madeira Rivers, through Bolivia and Peru (London, 1879); Carlos Matzenauer, Bolivia in historischer, geographischer and cultureller Hinsicht (Vienna, 18 97); M.
More than once they had beaten him, and more than once they had made him drunk on champagne and Madeira, which he loved; and he knew more than one thing about each of them which would long ago have sent an ordinary man to Siberia.
Have a drink! said Anatole, and filled a large glass of Madeira for him.
The northern slope of this great plateau is drained by the AraguayaTocantins, Xingu, Tapajos and Guapore-Mamore-Madeira, which flow northward, and, except the first, empty into the Amazon; the southern slope drains southward through a multitude of streams flowing into the Parana and Paraguay.
The islands of the Canaries, Madeira and the Azores belong to the Mediterranean province, and offer some peculiarities of great interest.
Joao Fernandes Vieyra, a native of Madeira, organized the insurrection which broke out in 1645.