In Indo-China, West Africa, French Congo and Madagascar, the colonies and protectorates are grouped under governors-general, and to these high officials extensive powers have been granted by presidential decree.
The colonial budgets totalled in 1907 some 16,760,000, being divisible into six categories: Algeria 4,120,000; Tunisia 3,640,000; Indo-China3 about 5,000,ooo; West Africa 1,600,000; Madagascar 960,000; all other colonies combined 1,440,000.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
2 In the case of Madagascar by decree, of the 11th of December 1895.
Bruce, the leader of the Scottish expedition, finds that there is a ridge " extending in a curve from Madagascar to Bouvet Island, and from Bouvet Island to the Sandwich group, whence there is a forked connexion through the South Orkneys to Graham's Land, and through South Georgia to the Falkland Islands and the South American continent."
All the Malagasy lemurs, which agree in the structure of the internal ear, are now included in the family Lemuridae, confined to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, which comprises the great majority of the group. The other families are the Nycticebidae, common to tropical Asia and Africa, and the Tarsiidae, restricted to the Malay countries.
Till recently the aye-aye was regarded as representing a family by itself - the Chiromyidae; but the discovery that it resembles the other lemurs of Madagascar in the structure of the inner ear, and thus differs from all other members of the group, has led to the conclusion that it is best classed as a subfamily (Chiromyidae) of the Lemuridae.
Two British plants may be added which both reach North Africa: Sanicule eurojbaea extends from Abyssinia to the Cameroons and southwards to Cape Colony and Madagascar; Sambucus Ebulus reaches Uganda.
An Indian element derived from the northeast is most marked on the eastern side: the Himalayan Gloriosa will suffice as an example, and of more tropical types Phoenix and Calamus amongst palms.
The singular shrubby Amaryllids, Vellozieae, are common to tropical and South Africa, Madagascar and Brazil.
After this there is a considerable gap before New Guinea, Borneo, Madagascar, Sumatra and the vast multitude of smaller islands descending in size by regular gradations to mere rocks.
These facts have led some naturalists to include the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions in one, termed Holarctic, and to suggest transitional regions, such as the Sonoran, between North and South America, and the Mediterranean, between Europe and Africa, or to create sub-regions, such as Madagascar and New Zealand.
In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.
Until a very recent epoch there flourished in Madagascar huge birds referable to the Ratitae, e.g.
Struthio in Africa and Arabia, fossil also in the Sivalik Hills, and Aepyornithidae in Madagascar; Pittzdae, Bucerotinae and Upupinae, of which Upupa itself in India, Madagascar and Africa; Coraciidae; Pycnonotidae or bulbuls; Trogonidae, of which the Asiatic genera are the less specialized in opposition to the Neotropical forms; Vulturidae; Leptoptilus, Anastomus and Ciconia among the storks; Pteroclidae; Treroninae among pigeons.
The Ethiopian Subregion comprises the whole of Africa and Madagascar, except the Barbary States, but including Arabia; in the north-east the subregion melts into the Palaearctic between Palestine and the Persian Gulf.
The natural division of the subregion is that into an African and a Madagascar province.
The Malagasy province comprises, besides Madagascar, the Mascarene, Comoro and Seychelle islands.
Birds, p. 353), the avifauna of Madagascar is not entirely composed of such singularities as these.
Picidae, woodpeckers, cosmopolitan, excepting Madagascar and Australian region.
Vanda (Asia) and Angraecum (Africa and Madagascar) are known in cultivation.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
It built ships as cheaply as any place in the world, it carried goods for other colonies, it traded-often evading British laws-with Europe, Guinea, Madagascar and above all with the West Indies.
There is no actual proof that this spider is more poisonous than others, but it is a significant fact that its species, inhabiting countries as widely separated as Chile, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand and South Europe are held in great fear by the indigenous population, and many stories are current of serious or fatal results following their bites.
Yorkshire, Somerset, Buckingham, France, Switzer land, Spain, Italy, Lower Austria, Baden, Elsass, Hesse, Hanover, Brunswick, Sizran, Tiflis, Siberia, Persia, Madagascar, Alaska, Wyoming, Colorado, Mexico, Argentina.
The same phenomena have been witnessed, not only in the conflicts within the Church that marked the 13th to the 16th centuries, but in the different mission fields, and particularly in Madagascar and China.
In Madagascar a topographical bureau was established by General J.
In 1868 this developed into the Friends' Foreign Mission Association, which now undertakes Missionary work in India (begun 1866), Madagascar (1867), Syria (1869), China (1886),(1886), Ceylon (1896).
Madagascar and the Comoro Islands obtained most of their slaves from the Mozambique coast.
Slavery itself has been abolished in the Zanzibar, British, German and Portuguese dominions, and had ceased in Madagascar even before its conquest by the French.
With the exception of Madagascar, the genus Mus ranges over practically the whole of the Old World, having indigenous representatives even in Australasia; while the house-mouse, with man's involuntary aid, has succeeded in establishing itself throughout the civilized world.
Of these vines the most important are the species of Landolphia which occur throughout tropical Africa, including the Sudan, Congo, Mozambique and Madagascar, the principal of which are Landolphia owariensis and L.
Of the northern point of Madagascar and 690 m.
Dupont, curator of the Botanic station at Mahe, who visited Aldabra in 1906, says: "The specimens represented, besides being partly peculiar, mostly belong to the Mascarenes, Madagascar and Comoros species.
The predominant species are Madagascar plants and birds, which are carried by the currents and the winds..
Endemic inferior animals and mammals are practically non-existent, except two bats and one scorpion, which are allied to Madagascar species or introduced.
The reptiles (tortoises) are also nearly allied to the Mascarenes and Madagascar species which once existed.
Of more marine habit are P. philippensis and P. fuscus, the former having a wide range in Southern Asia, and, it is said, reaching Madagascar, and the latter common on the coasts of the warmer parts of both North and South America.
An exceptional type in the order is represented by Humbertia, a native of Madagascar, which forms a large tree.
The forests of a comparatively small tract on the east coast of Madagascar form its home.
He directed the negotiations which led to the establishment of a French protectorate in Tunis (1881), prepared the treaty of the 17th of December 1885 for the occupation of Madagascar; directed the exploration of the Congo and of the Niger region; and above all he organized the conquest of Indo-China.
The fossils of the Cenomanian have affinities with those in the Cenomanian of Spain, Egypt, Madagascar, Mozambique and India.
This makes the occurrence of a species of Corallus in Madagascar less remarkable, while all the others live in Central and South America.
Polyodontophis of Madagascar, S.E.
They comprise about 300 species of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic forms, and as a group they are almost cosmopolitan, including Madagascar, but excepting new Zealand.
In some of the species the elongate form of the head is still more exaggerated by a pointed flexible appendage of the snout (Passerita), which may be nearly half an inch in length, or leaf-like, as in the Madagascar Langaha.
These snakes are all very poisonous, mostly viviparous and found in all tropical and subtropical countries, with the exception of Madagascar and New Zealand.
To the sea round Madagascar, and E.
The family is cosmopolitan, excepting Madagascar and the whole of the Australian region.
What may be called typical, that is to say arboreal, squirrels are found throughout the greater part of the tropical and temperate regions of both hemispheres, although they are absent both from Madagascar and Australasia.
A presumed large ground-sloth from Madagascar has been described, on the evidence of a limb-bone, as Bradytherium, but it is suggested by Dr F.
By the French they have been much longer known as "Souimangas," from the Madagascar name of one of the species given in 1658 by Flacourt as Soumangha.
This author divides the family into three sub-families: Neodrepaninae, consisting of a single genus and species peculiar to Madagascar; Nectariniinae, containing 9 genera, one of which, Cinnyris, has more than half the number of species in the whole group; and Arachnctherinae (sometimes known as "spider-hunters"), with 2 genera including I I species - all large in size and plain in hue.
Coast of Madagascar, in 13° 23' S., 48° 15' E.
The administration was entrusted to a subordinate of the governor of Mayotte until 1896, when Nossi-be was placed under the administration of Madagascar (q.v.).
On reaching Madagascar, Rozhestvenski heard of the fall of Port Arthur, and the question of returning to Russia arose.
The relationship with Aepyornis of Madagascar is still problematic. Whilst the moas seem to have been entirely herbivorous, feeding not unlikely upon the shoots of ferns, the kiwis have become highly specialized wormeaters.
It has been urged that these brown peoples sprang from one stock with the Malays and the Malagasy of Madagascar; and that they represent this parent stock better than the Malays who have been much modified by crossings.
Whilst the skin is mostly soft on the back, with little granular tubercles, scales (except on the belly) are absent, but they are present in Homopholis, in Geckolepis of Madagascar, and most fully developed in Teratoscincus scincus.
Aeluronyx of Madagascar and Seychelles has cat-like retractile claws.
"The island of Madagascar," she said, "Ma-da-gas-car," she repeated, articulating each syllable distinctly, and, not replying to Madame Schoss who asked her what she was saying, she went out of the room.
"No, don't... the island of Madagascar!" she said, and jumping off his back she went downstairs.
Nepenthes may be mentioned as a genus specially developed in the Malayan area, and extending from New Caledonia to Madagascar; it is found as far north as the Khasi hills, and in Ceylon, but does not appear on the Himalaya or in the peninsula of India.