2 In the case of Madagascar by decree, of the 11th of December 1895.
The colonial budgets totalled in 1907 some 16,760,000, being divisible into six categories: Algeria 4,120,000; Tunisia 3,640,000; Indo-China3 about 5,000,ooo; West Africa 1,600,000; Madagascar 960,000; all other colonies combined 1,440,000.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
In Indo-China, West Africa, French Congo and Madagascar, the colonies and protectorates are grouped under governors-general, and to these high officials extensive powers have been granted by presidential decree.
Bruce, the leader of the Scottish expedition, finds that there is a ridge " extending in a curve from Madagascar to Bouvet Island, and from Bouvet Island to the Sandwich group, whence there is a forked connexion through the South Orkneys to Graham's Land, and through South Georgia to the Falkland Islands and the South American continent."
All the Malagasy lemurs, which agree in the structure of the internal ear, are now included in the family Lemuridae, confined to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, which comprises the great majority of the group. The other families are the Nycticebidae, common to tropical Asia and Africa, and the Tarsiidae, restricted to the Malay countries.
Till recently the aye-aye was regarded as representing a family by itself - the Chiromyidae; but the discovery that it resembles the other lemurs of Madagascar in the structure of the inner ear, and thus differs from all other members of the group, has led to the conclusion that it is best classed as a subfamily (Chiromyidae) of the Lemuridae.
Two British plants may be added which both reach North Africa: Sanicule eurojbaea extends from Abyssinia to the Cameroons and southwards to Cape Colony and Madagascar; Sambucus Ebulus reaches Uganda.
An Indian element derived from the northeast is most marked on the eastern side: the Himalayan Gloriosa will suffice as an example, and of more tropical types Phoenix and Calamus amongst palms. The forest flora of Madagascar, though including an endemic family Chlaenaceae, is essentially tropical African and the upland flora south temperate.
The singular shrubby Amaryllids, Vellozieae, are common to tropical and South Africa, Madagascar and Brazil.
After this there is a considerable gap before New Guinea, Borneo, Madagascar, Sumatra and the vast multitude of smaller islands descending in size by regular gradations to mere rocks.
They are six in number: (1) Palaearctic, including Europe, Asia north of the Himalaya, and Africa north of the Sahara; (2) Ethiopian, consisting of Africa south of the Atlas range, and Madagascar; (3) Oriental, including India, Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago north of Wallace's line, which runs between Bali and Lombok; (4) Australian, including Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and Pol y nesia; (5) Nearctic or North America, north of Mexico; and (6) Neotropical or South America.
These facts have led some naturalists to include the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions in one, termed Holarctic, and to suggest transitional regions, such as the Sonoran, between North and South America, and the Mediterranean, between Europe and Africa, or to create sub-regions, such as Madagascar and New Zealand.
In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.
Until a very recent epoch there flourished in Madagascar huge birds referable to the Ratitae, e.g.
Struthio in Africa and Arabia, fossil also in the Sivalik Hills, and Aepyornithidae in Madagascar; Pittzdae, Bucerotinae and Upupinae, of which Upupa itself in India, Madagascar and Africa; Coraciidae; Pycnonotidae or bulbuls; Trogonidae, of which the Asiatic genera are the less specialized in opposition to the Neotropical forms; Vulturidae; Leptoptilus, Anastomus and Ciconia among the storks; Pteroclidae; Treroninae among pigeons.
The Ethiopian Subregion comprises the whole of Africa and Madagascar, except the Barbary States, but including Arabia; in the north-east the subregion melts into the Palaearctic between Palestine and the Persian Gulf.
The natural division of the subregion is that into an African and a Madagascar province.
The Malagasy province comprises, besides Madagascar, the Mascarene, Comoro and Seychelle islands.
Birds, p. 353), the avifauna of Madagascar is not entirely composed of such singularities as these.
Picidae, woodpeckers, cosmopolitan, excepting Madagascar and Australian region.
Vanda (Asia) and Angraecum (Africa and Madagascar) are known in cultivation.
Nepenthes may be mentioned as a genus specially developed in the Malayan area, and extending from New Caledonia to Madagascar; it is found as far north as the Khasi hills, and in Ceylon, but does not appear on the Himalaya or in the peninsula of India.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
It built ships as cheaply as any place in the world, it carried goods for other colonies, it traded-often evading British laws-with Europe, Guinea, Madagascar and above all with the West Indies.
There is no actual proof that this spider is more poisonous than others, but it is a significant fact that its species, inhabiting countries as widely separated as Chile, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand and South Europe are held in great fear by the indigenous population, and many stories are current of serious or fatal results following their bites.
Yorkshire, Somerset, Buckingham, France, Switzer land, Spain, Italy, Lower Austria, Baden, Elsass, Hesse, Hanover, Brunswick, Sizran, Tiflis, Siberia, Persia, Madagascar, Alaska, Wyoming, Colorado, Mexico, Argentina.
The same phenomena have been witnessed, not only in the conflicts within the Church that marked the 13th to the 16th centuries, but in the different mission fields, and particularly in Madagascar and China.
In Madagascar a topographical bureau was established by General J.
In 1868 this developed into the Friends' Foreign Mission Association, which now undertakes Missionary work in India (begun 1866), Madagascar (1867), Syria (1869), China (1886),(1886), Ceylon (1896).
Whilst the skin is mostly soft on the back, with little granular tubercles, scales (except on the belly) are absent, but they are present in Homopholis, in Geckolepis of Madagascar, and most fully developed in Teratoscincus scincus.
Aeluronyx of Madagascar and Seychelles has cat-like retractile claws.
It has been urged that these brown peoples sprang from one stock with the Malays and the Malagasy of Madagascar; and that they represent this parent stock better than the Malays who have been much modified by crossings.
The relationship with Aepyornis of Madagascar is still problematic. Whilst the moas seem to have been entirely herbivorous, feeding not unlikely upon the shoots of ferns, the kiwis have become highly specialized wormeaters.
On reaching Madagascar, Rozhestvenski heard of the fall of Port Arthur, and the question of returning to Russia arose.
By the French they have been much longer known as "Souimangas," from the Madagascar name of one of the species given in 1658 by Flacourt as Soumangha.
This author divides the family into three sub-families: Neodrepaninae, consisting of a single genus and species peculiar to Madagascar; Nectariniinae, containing 9 genera, one of which, Cinnyris, has more than half the number of species in the whole group; and Arachnctherinae (sometimes known as "spider-hunters"), with 2 genera including I I species - all large in size and plain in hue.
Coast of Madagascar, in 13° 23' S., 48° 15' E.
The administration was entrusted to a subordinate of the governor of Mayotte until 1896, when Nossi-be was placed under the administration of Madagascar (q.v.).
A presumed large ground-sloth from Madagascar has been described, on the evidence of a limb-bone, as Bradytherium, but it is suggested by Dr F.
What may be called typical, that is to say arboreal, squirrels are found throughout the greater part of the tropical and temperate regions of both hemispheres, although they are absent both from Madagascar and Australasia.