Among such settlements may be mentioned Phaselis in Lycia, perhaps also Soli in Cilicia, Salapia on the east Italian coast, Gela in Sicily, the Lipari islands, and Rhoda in north-east Spain.
In return for their more equivocal attitude during the Third Macedonian War they were deprived by Rome of some possessions in Lycia, and damaged by the partial diversion of their trade to Delos (167).
A terrible struggle took place for the possession of his body, until Apollo rescued it from the Greeks, and by the command of Zeus washed and cleansed it, anointed it with ambrosia, and handed it over to Sleep and Death, by whom it was conveyed for burial to Lycia, where a sanctuary (Sarpedoneum) was erected in honour of the fallen hero.
By Lycia and a small part of Phrygia.
Between this headland and the frontier of Lycia is the sheltered bay of Marmarice, noted in modern times as one of the finest harbours of the Mediterranean.
Friedrich, Archaologische Karte von Kleinasien (1899); Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art in Phrygia, Lydia, Caria and Lycia (Eng.
Megalithic town walls were naturally common in that stony land, Palestine, and very typical specimens of them were found in the Palestine Exploration Fund's excavations at Bethshemesh (`Ain Shems) directed by Dr. Duncan Mackenzie, 29 whose work also threw new light on the phenomenon of the appearance in Palestine between the 12th and 10th centuries B.C. of subMycenaean (Greek) pottery, which can only be ascribed to the Philistines, whose historical position as a foreign invading force from the Aegean area (Lycia and Crete-Kaphtor) is now entirely vindicated.
On the so-called Harpy monument from Lycia, now in the British Museum, the Harpies appear carrying off some small figures, supposed to be the daughters of Pandareus, unless they are intended to represent departed souls.
ELMALI (" apple-town"), a small town of Asia Minor in the vilayet of Konia, the present administrative centre of the ancient Lycia, but not itself corresponding to any known ancient city.
He entered Lycia and explored the Xanthus from the mouth at Patara upwards.
Nine miles from Patara he discovered the ruins of Xanthus, the ancient capital of Lycia, finely situated on hills, and abounding in magnificent remains.
Late in 1839 Fellows, under the auspices of the British Museum, again set out for Lycia, accompanied,by George Scharf, who assisted him in sketching.
This second visit resulted in the discovery of thirteen ancient cities, and in 1841 appeared An Account of Discoveries in Lycia, being a Journal kept during a Second Excursion in Asia Minor.
Proetus thereupon sent him to Iobates, his wife's father, king of Lycia, with a letter or sealed tablet, in which were instructions, apparently given by means of signs, to take the life of the bearer.
Arriving in Lycia, he was received as a guest and entertained for nine days.
PAMPHYLIA, in ancient geography, the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mt Taurus.
High" (Forbes's Lycia, ii.
By Lycia and a part of Phrygia.
This was especially the case on the side of Lycia, where the upland district of Milyas was sometimes included in Pisidia, at other times assigned to Lycia.
The most important of them are Termessus, near the frontier of Lycia, a strong fortress in a position of great natural strength and commanding one of the principal passes into Pamphylia; Cremna, another mountain fortress, north of the preceding, impending over the valley of the Cestrus; Sagalassus, a little farther north, a large town in a strong position, the ruins of which are among the most remarkable in Asia Minor; Selge, on the right bank of the Eurymedon, surrounded by rugged mountains, notwithstanding which it was in Strabo's time a large and opulent city; and Antioch, known for distinction's sake as Antioch of Pisidia, and celebrated for the visit of St Paul.
The honour paid to her in Delphi and Delos might be explained as part of the cult of her son Apollo; but temples to her existed in Argos; in Mantineia and in Xanthus in Lycia; her sacred grove was on the coast of Crete.
In Lycia graves are frequently placed under her protection, and she is also known as a goddess of fertility and as Kouporp60os.
Lycia, one of the chief seats of the cult of Apollo, where most frequent traces are found of the worship of Leto as the great goddess, was probably the earlier home of her religion.
Having driven the Persians out of Greek towns in Lycia and Caria, he met and routed the Persians on land and sea at the mouth of the Eurymedon in Pamphylia.
Thucydides is almost certainly wrong in saying that the amount of the original tribute was 460 talents (about £106,000); this figure cannot have been reached for at least twelve, probably twenty years, when new members had been enrolled (Lycia, Caria, Eion, Lampsacus).
ST NICHOLAS, bishop of Myra, in Lycia, a saint honoured by the Greeks and the Latins on the 6th of December.
These provinces had not yet been conquered by the Macedonians, and Antigonus (governor of Phrygia, Lycia and Pamphylia) refused to undertake the task at the command of Perdiccas.
All writers earlier than the 5th century are valuable, but particularly important are the following groups: (1) Greek writers in the West, especially Justin Martyr, Tatian, Marcion, Irenaeus and Hippolytus; (2) Latin writers in Italy, especially Novatian, the author of the de Rebaptismate and Ambrosiaster; (3) Latin writers in Africa, especially Tertullian and Cyprian; (4) Greek writers in Alexandria, especially Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Athanasius and Cyril; (5) Greek writers in the East, especially Methodius of Lycia and Eusebius of Caesarea; (6) Syriac writers, especially Aphraates and Ephraem; it is doubtful whether the Diatessaron of Tatian ought to be reckoned in this group or in (1).
A third class of Cyclopes are the builders of the so-called "Cyclopean" walls of Mycenae and Tiryns, giants with arms in their belly, who were said to have been brought by Proetus from Lycia to Argos, his original home (Pausanias ii.
In Lycia, which in spite of " the son of Harpagus " and King Pericles, had never been brought under one man's rule, the Greek influence is more limited.
And above all the monumental remains of Lycia show strong Greek influence, especially the well-known " Nereid Monument " in the British Museum, whose date is held to go back to the 5th century (Gardner, Handbook of Gk.
LYCIA, in ancient geography, a district in the S.W.
Promontory of Lycia, formed by a long narrow tongue of rocky hill, known in ancient times as the "Sacred Promontory" (Hiera Acra), with three small adjacent islets, called the Chelidonian islands, which was regarded by some ancient geographers as the commencement of Mt.
Though the mountain ranges of Lycia are all offshoots of Mt.
The steep and rugged pass between Solyma and the sea, called the Climax ("Ladder"), was the only direct communication between Lycia and Pamphylia.
The limits of Lycia towards the interior seem to have varied at different times.
According to Artemidorus (whose authority is followed by Strabo), the towns that formed the Lycian league in the days of its integrity were twentythree in number; but Pliny states that Lycia once possessed seventy towns, of which only twenty-six remained in his day.
Myra, one of the most important cities of Lycia, occupied the entrance of the valley of the Andriacus; on the coast between this and the mouth of the Xanthus stood Antiphellus, while in the interior at a short distance were found Phellus, Cyaneae and Candyba.
Their occupation of Lycia was probably later, and since the Lycian inscriptions are not found far inland, we may conclude that they entered the country from the sea.
The Lydians failed to subdue Lycia, but after the fall of the Lydian empire it was conquered by Harpagus the general of Cyrus, Xanthus or Arnna, the capital, being completely destroyed.
Under Claudius Lycia was formally annexed to the Roman empire, and united with Pamphylia: Theodosius made it a separate province.
Few parts of Asia Minor were less known in modern times than Lycia up to the 19th century.
- C. Fellows, Journal Asia Minor (1839) and Discoveries in Lycia (1841); T.
Forbes, Travels in Lycia (1847); O.
The later sepulchral monuments belong to a class which is widely spread over Asia Minor from Lycia to Pontus.
Hence Argos was perhaps the earliest town of importance in Greece; the legends indicate its high antiquity and its early intercourse with foreign countries (Egypt, Lycia, &c.).
655) was fought off the coast of Lycia the great naval battle, which because of the great number of masts has been called "the mast fight," in which the Greek fleet, commanded by the emperor Constans II.
There are, however, examples in Greece proper, and one, Lycia in Asia Minor, of real federal unions.
It attains in Lycia an altitude of 10,500 ft., and in the Bulgar Dagh (Cilicia) of over 10,000 ft.
In Lycia are the Indus (Gereniz Chai), and the Xanthus (Eshen Chai).
The native reports of a maneless lion in Lycia (arslan) are probably based on the existence of large panthers.
Errors in policy and in government facilitated the rise of Pontus into a formidable power under Mithradates, who was finally driven out of the country by Pompey, and died 63 B.C. Under the settlement of Asia Minor by Pompey, Bithynia-Pontus and Cilicia became provinces, whilst Galatia and Cappadocia were allowed to retain nominal independence for over half a century more under native kings, and Lycia continued an autonomous League.
Beaufort, Karamania (1817) C. Fellows, Discoveries in Lycia (1841); T.
Forbes, Travels in Lycia (1847); V.
Nicola, founded in 5087 to receive the relics of this saint, which were brought from Myra in Lycia, and now lie beneath the altar in the crypt.
Proetus, king of Corinth, sent Bellerophon to his father-in-law the king of Lycia, and gave him " baneful tokens " (o jiara Xvy pet, i.e.
The king of Lycia asked duly (on the tenth day from the guest's coming) for a token (nree oiLua 15&rOat), and then knew what Proetus wished to be done.
There existed, in fact, under the Achaemenids a strong colonizing movement, diffused through the whole empire; traces of this policy occur more especially in Armenia, Cappadocia and, Lycia, but also in the rest of Asia Minor, and not rarely in Syria and Egypt.
In the troubles that followed Nearchus attached himself to Antigonus, under whom he held the government of his old provinces of Lycia and Pamphylia, and probably therefore shared in the downfall (301) of that monarch.