He was of "Pennsylvania-German" parentage, his name being originally Albrecht, and was educated in the Lutheran faith.
The liturgy of the Lutheran church of Russia has, since 1898, been based on his Liturgische Formulare (1872).
In the same year the Lutheran reformation took hold of him, and he began to issue appeals in prose and verse against the Mass and against the pope as antichrist.
Stayed the Lutheran movement, and Luther himself, safe in the solitude of the Wartburg, survived Leo X.
In Germany the concessions made to the pope and the reservations maintained by him in the matter of taxes and benefices were deemed excessive, and the prolonged discontent which resulted was one of the causes of the success of the Lutheran Reformation.
The great difference is in the attitude towards the Lord's Supper, the Reformed or Calvinistic Churches repudiating not only transubstantiation but also the Lutheran consubstantiation.
His father, a Lutheran minister, died while he was yet a child, leaving a widow and three children.
When the conclusions thus reached by many independent investigators were at length reduced to a system by Calvin, in his famous Institutio, it became the definite ideal of church government for all the Reformed, in contradistinction to the Lutheran, churches.
Before that time three religions (cultes) were recognized and supported by the state-the Roman Catholic, the Protestant (subdivided into the Reformed and Lutheran) and the Hebrew.
The organization of the Lutheran Church (Eglise de la confession dAugsburg) is broadly similar.
As in the other Saxon duchies the population is almost exclusively Protestant; in 1905, 262,243 belonged to the Lutheran confession, 4845 were Roman Catholics and 1256 Jews.
A few months after the disaster of Jemmingen, Orange, who had now become a Lutheran, himself led a large army into Brabant.
To his translation (1530) of a Latin Chronicle and Description of Turkey, by a Transylvanian captive, which had been prefaced by Luther, he added an appendix holding up the Turks as in many respects an example to Christians, and presenting in lieu of the restrictions of Lutheran, Zwinglian and Anabaptist sects, the vision of an invisible spiritual church, universal in its scope.
He was also to sound the Lutheran princes with a view to an alliance, and to obtain the removal of some restrictions on English trade.
A result followed somewhat similar to the effect, on the German language, of the Lutheran reformation.
The Lenten fast was retained at the Reformation in some of the reformed Churches, and is still observed in the Anglican and Lutheran communions.
Other institutions of learning are the Capital University and Evangelical Lutheran Theological Seminary (Theological Seminary opened in 1830; college opened as an academy in 1850), with buildings just east of the city limits; Starling Ohio Medical College, a law school, a dental school and an art institute.
Anselm's Apologia contra insipientem Gaunilonem (c. 110o); or the Lutheran Apology for the Augsburg Confession (1531); or J.
He is a good enough Lutheran to quote as a " mystery " the Eucharist no less than the Trinity, while he insists that truths above are not against reason.
Instead of reviving Moravian orders at once, the settlers attended the Berthelsdorf parish church, regarded themselves as Lutherans, agreed to a code of "statutes" drawn up by the count, accepted the Augsburg Confession as their standard of faith, and, joining with some Lutheran settlers in a special Communion service in Berthelsdorf (Aug.
CHRISTOPH ERNST LUTHARDT (1823-1902), German Lutheran theologian, was born at Maroldsweisach, Bavaria, on the 22nd of March 1823.
There he gained an acquaintance with the Lutheran hymns, which he turned to account on his return to Scotland.
Letters and writings of his own (1527-1528) proved him to hold strongly anti-Lutheran heresies, and both Catholics and Lutherans urged the duke of Liegnitz to dismiss him.
He and his followers withdrew from the Lutheran Church, declined its sacraments, and formed small societies of kindred views.
It led him to oppose the Lutheran view of the value of the outward:'means of grace, such as the ministry of the word and the sacraments.
In his Christology he departed from the Lutheran and Zwinglian doctrine of the two natures by insisting on what he called the Vergotterung des Fleisches Christi, the deification or the glorification of the flesh of Christ.
They have continued to be worn, however, by the bishops of the Scandinavian Lutheran Y P Churches.
The sect was the outcome of one of the many Pietistic movements of the 17th century, and was founded in 1708 by Alexander Mack of Schwarzenau, Germany, and seven of his followers, upon the general issue that both the Lutheran and Reformed churches were taking liberties with the literal teachings of the Scriptures.
His father, a Lutheran clergyman at Leonberg, dabbled in spiritualism, and was deprived of his living in 1771.
In the Lutheran church the title Archidiakonus is given in some places to the senior assistant pastor of a church.
This he was able to do, as a moderate Lutheran, whose calmness and common sense contrasted advantageously with the unbridled violence of his contemporaries.
In theology he followed Zwingli, and at the sacramentarian conferences of Heidelberg (1560) and Maulbronn (1564) he advocated by voice and pen the Zwinglian doctrine of the Lord's Supper, replying (1565) to the counter arguments of the Lutheran Johann Marbach, of Strassburg.
Between 1562 and 1567 he published many controversial tracts, especially against the Lutheran, Martin Chemnitz.
BOOK OF CONCORD (Liber Concordiae), the collective documents of the Lutheran confession, consisting of the Confessio Augustana, the Apologia Confessionis Augustanae, the Articula Smalcaldici, the Catechismi Major et Minor and the Formula Concordiae.
This last was a formula issued on the 25th of June 1580 (the jubilee of the Augsburg Confession) by the Lutheran Church in an attempt to heal the breach which, since the death of Luther, had been widening between the extreme Lutherans and the Crypto-Calvinists.
Although Louis V., who founded the university of Giessen in 1607, was a Lutheran, he and his son, George II.
Theodosius Harnack was a staunch Lutheran and a prolific writer on theological subjects; his chief field of work was practical theology, and his important book on that subject, summing up his long experience and teaching, appeared at Erlangen (1877-1878, 2 vols.).
He was a strong Lutheran and exercised a powerful influence in that direction as court preacher in Dresden and as president of the Protestant consistory at Munich.
ABRAHAM CALOVIUS (1612-1686), German Lutheran divine, was born at Mohrungen in east Prussia, on the 16th of April 1612.
Calovius was the most noteworthy of the champions of Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17th century.
16 551677), represents the climax of Lutheran scholasticism.
How millennarianism nevertheless found its way, with the help of apocalyptic mysticism and Anabaptist influences into the churches of the Reformation, chiefly among the Reformed sects, but afterwards also in the Lutheran Church, how it became incorporated with Pietism, how in more recent times an exceedingly mild type of "academic" chiliasm has been developed from a belief in the verbal inspiration of the Bible, how finally new sects are still springing up here and there with apocalyptic and chiliastic expectations - these are matters which cannot be fully entered upon here.
HENRY MELCHIOR MUHLENBERG (1711-1787), GermanAmerican Lutheran clergyman, was born in Einbeck, Hanover, on the 6th of September 1711.
In 1742, in reply to a call from the Lutheran churches of Pennsylvania, he went to Philadelphia, and was joined from time to time, especially in 1745, by students from Halle.
Muhlenberg occupied himself more particularly with the congregation at New Providence (now Trappe), though he was practically overseer of all the Lutheran churches from New York to Maryland.
In 1748 he organized the first Lutheran synod in America.
The importance of his work in organizing and building up the American Lutheran Church, of which he has been called the Patriarch, can hardly be exaggerated; but his example in preaching in English as well as in German was, unfortunately for the growth of the Lutheran Church, not followed by his immediate successors.
Sbot) is borne among the Syrians only by the patriarch, in all the other rites by all bishops, in the Greek 1 Among curious exceptions is the pastoral staff still carried by the Lutheran abbot of Lokkum.
It is the seat of Blinn Memorial College (German Methodist Episcopal), opened as "Mission Institute" in 1883, and renamed in 1889 in honour of the Rev. Christian Blinn, of New York, a liberal benefactor; of Brenham Evangelical Lutheran College, and of a German-American institute (1898).
Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.
JOHANN CHRISTIAN KONRAD VON HOFMANN (1810-1877), Lutheran theologian and historian, was born on the 21st of December 1810 at Nuremberg, and studied theology and history at the university of Erlangen.
In theology, as in ecclesiastical polity, Hofmann was a Lutheran of an extreme type, although the strongly marked individuality of some of his opinions laid him open to repeated accusations of heterodoxy.
During the same period the Lutheran zeal of the citizens led to the expulsion of the Mennonites and other Protestant sects, who founded Altona.
Luther and his followers regarded vestments as among the adiaphora, and in the Churches which afterwards came to be known as "Lutheran" many of the traditional vestments were retained.
The Church of England, in which the Lutheran and Calvinistic points of view struggled for the mastery, a struggle which resulted in a compromise, is separately dealt with below.
At the present day the Lutheran Churches of Denmark and Scandinavia retain the use of alb and chasuble in the celebration of the eucharist (stole, amice, girdle and maniple were disused after the Reformation), and for bishops the cope and mitre.
If this be so, the case is exactly parallel with that of the Lutheran Churches which, about the same time, had discarded all the "mass vestments" except the alb and chasuble.
He gives reasons for believing that in the Church of England, under the first Prayer Book, as in the Lutheran Churches, while chasuble and alb were retained, stole, maniple, amice and girdle were discontinued.