While kings claimed they ruled by a divine right, dictators claimed their right to rule through might.
The armies of the rival kings met at Gdllheim near Worms, where Adolph was defeated and slain, and Albert submitted to a fresh election.
Both these kings were slain by .Ceadwalla in the following year, but shortly afterwards the Welsh king was overthrown by Oswald, brother of Eanfrith, who reunited the whole of Northumbria under his sway and acquired a supremacy analogous to that previously held by Edwin.
The Welsh and Scottish kings, however, both submitted to lEthelstan, and Guthfrith was again driven into exile.
About two years later, however, both these kings were expelled by Edmund, and the whole of Northumbria was brought under his power.
All the land was lost in the next few years, partly by the revolt of the local farmers.
In Africa they were successful in expelling the garrisons placed in some of the coast towns by the Norman kings of Sicily.
In 1291 he attempted to secure the election of his son Albert as German king; but the princes refused on the pretext of their inability to support two kings, but perhaps because they feared the increasing power of the Habsburgs.
And several succeeding kings confirmed Walter de Gaunt's gift, Stephen granting in addition the right to have a port.
AMAL, the name of the noblest family among the Ostrogoths, and that from which nearly all their kings were chosen.
He supported Frederick in his struggle with the anti-kings, Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, and William II., count of Holland, and was put under the papal ban by Pope Innocent IV., Bavaria being laid under an interdict.
The Wittelsbachs gave three kings to Germany, Louis IV.,' Rupert and Charles VII.
Members of the family were also margraves of Brandenburg from 1323 to 1373, and kings of Sweden from 1654 to 1718.
By Procopius, who wrongly derives the name from several thousand Moors and Numidians who were banished to the island by the Vandal kings, while Gregory the Great speaks of them in a letter (iv.
ARCHIDAMUS, the name of five kings of Sparta, of the Eurypontid house.
His extreme impecuniosity made him from the first subservient to the Polish senate and nobles (szlachta), who deprived him of the control of the mint - then one of the most lucrative sources of revenue of the Polish kings - curtailed his prerogative, and generally endeavoured to reduce him to a subordinate position.
The queen wished to bury him at the feet of the Swedish kings, and to raise a costly mausoleum in his honour; but these plans were overruled, and a plain monument in the Catholic cemetery was all that marked the place of his rest.
OSWIO (c. 612-670), king of Northumbria, son of .Ã†thelfrith and brother of Oswald, whom he succeeded in Bernicia in 642 after the battle of Maserfeld, was the seventh of the great English kings enumerated by Bede.
In the time of the Sassanian kings, however, as at the present time, the Tigris occupied a more easterly course.
The kings of Taxila and Porus were at enmity, and for this cause the invader could reckon upon Omphis as a firm ally.
Even in India we are told that he was held in honour by the native kings who took his farthest provinces in possession.
They possessed in Cyprus a kingdom, in which they had vindicated for themselves a stronger hold over their feudatories than the kings of Jerusalem had ever enjoyed, and in which trading centres like Famagusta flourished vigorously.
A more sympathetic attitude appears in two elegies (xix.), one on the kings Jehoahaz and Jehoiachin, the other on the nation.
The fact that the kings were often absent from England, and that the justiciarship was held by great nobles or churchmen, made this office of an importance which at times threatened to overshadow that of the Crown.
In Scotland the title of justiciar was borne, under the earlier kings, by two high officials, one having his jurisdiction to the north, the other to the south of the Forth.
The Servians again installed themselves in Upper Albania about 1180, and the provinces of Scutari and Prizren were ruled by kings of the house of Nemanya till 1360; Stefan Dushan (1331-1358), the greatest of these monarchs, included all Albania in his extensive but short-lived empire, and took the title of Imperator Romaniae Slavoniae et Albaniae (emperor of the Greeks, Slays and Albanians).
In addition to this Bedouin organization there was the curious institution of an elective monarchy, some of whose kings are catalogued in Gen.
43-54 These kings reigned at some date anterior to the time of Saul.
I) and maintaining a navy at Ezion-geber, at the head of the Gulf of Akaba (1 Kings ix.
Indeed, until the time of Jehoram, when the land revolted (2 Kings viii.
20, 22), Edom was a dependency of Judah, ruled by a viceroy (i Kings xxii..
2 See 2 Kings xiv.
The two kings were twice defeated.
Robertson, Scotland under her Early Kings (Edinburgh, 1862); Lord Hailes, Annals of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1819); A.
Athens at once appealed to Sparta to punish this act of medism, and Cleomenes I., one of the Spartan kings, crossed over to the island, to arrest those who were responsible for it.
An attempt at recovering their independence was temporarily quelled in a campaign by Amaziah (2 Kings xiv.
7), and Azariah his successor was able to renew the sea trade of the Gulf of Akaba (2 Kings xiv.
22) which had probably languished since the wreck of Jehoshaphat's ships (1 Kings xxii, 48); but the ancient kingdom had been re-established by the time of Ahaz,.
Mazaca, the residence of the kings of Cappadocia, later called Eusebea (perhaps after Ariarathes Eusebes), and named Caesarea probably by Claudius, stood on a low spur on the north side of Erjies Dagh (M.
Amalric was the founder of a dynasty of kings of Cyprus, which lasted till 1475, while after 1269 his descendants regularly enjoyed the title of kings of Jerusalem.
Thus (though earlier Indian and Bactrian coins do not show it) it is found with the gods on some of the coins of the Indian kings Kanishka, Huvishka and Vasudeva, 58 B.C. to A.D.
Of Coins of Greek and Scythic Kings of Bactria and India, Brit.