Basutoland is entirely occupied by the upper division (Stormberg series) of the Karroo formation.
A broad ring of crystalline rocks (Swaziland schists) encircles the Transvaal except on the south, where the Karroo formation extends over the Vaal River.
Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.
The following subdivisions have been recognized by Molengraaff Karroo System, Transvaal System, Vaal River System, South African Primary System.
The Karroo System attains its chief development in the southeastern Transvaal in the districts of Ermelo, Standerton and Wakkerstroom.
The Karroo beds lie almost horizontally, in marked contrast to the highly inclined older rocks.
Remnants have been found of their former existence in the neighbourhood of Pretoria; and portions of the Bushveld Sandstone have recently been relegated to the Karroo formation.
Indica, and therefore of Lower Karroo age, appear in the south but are overlapped on the north by Jurassic strata.
In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.
No traces of the Karroo formation have been detected.
Except a small area around Vredefort in the north, the whole of the province is occupied by rocks of Karroo age.
Of the Karroo System all the groups from the basal Dwyka Conglomerate to the Cave Sandstone of the Stormberg series (see Cape Colony) are represented; but these rocks have not been so minutely subdivided as in the Cape.
The Karroo formation and associate dolerites (Loalemandelstein) occur in the same region.
It lies in the Little Karroo, about Boo ft.
The upper part certainly belongs to the Cretaceous formation; the lower part has been considered to be of Karroo age by some geologists, while others regard the whole formation to be of Cretaceous age.
The Karroo system (sandstones and marls) covers immense areas (see Africa, § Geology).
On the Karroo are numerous ostrich farms. Lucerne is very largely grown as fodder for the cattle.
Over the Karroo and other arid regions some io,000 boreholes had been sunk to depths varying from 50 to 500 ft., their yield being 60,000,000 gallons a year.
Karroo any arid district; now the name of definite regions (from the Hottentot).
Marloth, Das Kapland, insonderheit das Reich der Kapflora, das Waldgebiet and die Karroo, pfianzengeographisch dargestellt (Jena, 1908); F.
KARROO, two extensive plateaus in the Cape province, South Africa, known respectively as the Great and Little Karroo.
Karroo is a corruption of Karusa, a Hottentot word meaning dry, barren, and its use as a place-name indicates the character of the plateaus so designated.
The Little (also called Southern) Karroo is the table-land nearest the southern coast-line of the Cape, and is bounded north by the Zwaarteberg, which separates it from the Great Karroo.
From west to east the Little Karroo has a length of some 200 m., whilst its average width is 30 m.
West of the Zwaarteberg the Little Karroo merges into the Great Karroo.
The Great Karroo is of much larger extent.
Whilst the Little Karroo is divided by a chain of hills which run across it from east to west, and varies in altitude from 1000 to 2000 ft., the Great Karroo has more the aspect of a vast plain and has a level of from 2000 to 3000 ft.
The total area of the Karroo plateaus is stated to be over ioo,000 sq.
The chief characteristics of the Karroo are the absence of running water during a great part of the year and the consequent parched aspect of the country.
There is little vegetation save stunted shrubs, such as the mimosa (which generally marks the river beds), wild pomegranate, and wax heaths, known collectively as Karroo bush.
Such parts of the Karroo as are under perennial irrigation are among the most productive lands in South Africa.
There are also numerous ostrich farms, in particular in the districts of Oudtshoorn and Ladismith in the Little Karroo, where lucerne grows with extraordinary luxuriance.
The Karroo is admirably adapted to sufferers from pulmonary complaints.
A marked feature of the climate is the great daily range (nearly 30°) in temperature; the Karroo towns are also subject to violent dust storms. Game, formerly plentiful, has been, with the exception of buck, almost exterminated.
In a looser sense the term Karroo is also used of the vast northern plains of the Cape which are part of the inner table-land of the continent.
Both are considered to represent the Karroo formation of South Africa.
The Adigrat Sandstone possibly represents some portion of the Karroo formation of South Africa.