Basutoland is entirely occupied by the upper division (Stormberg series) of the Karroo formation.
A broad ring of crystalline rocks (Swaziland schists) encircles the Transvaal except on the south, where the Karroo formation extends over the Vaal River.
Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.
The following subdivisions have been recognized by Molengraaff Karroo System, Transvaal System, Vaal River System, South African Primary System.
The Karroo System attains its chief development in the southeastern Transvaal in the districts of Ermelo, Standerton and Wakkerstroom.
The Karroo beds lie almost horizontally, in marked contrast to the highly inclined older rocks.
Remnants have been found of their former existence in the neighbourhood of Pretoria; and portions of the Bushveld Sandstone have recently been relegated to the Karroo formation.
Indica, and therefore of Lower Karroo age, appear in the south but are overlapped on the north by Jurassic strata.
In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.
No traces of the Karroo formation have been detected.
Except a small area around Vredefort in the north, the whole of the province is occupied by rocks of Karroo age.
The Karroo formation and associate dolerites (Loalemandelstein) occur in the same region.
It lies in the Little Karroo, about Boo ft.
The upper part certainly belongs to the Cretaceous formation; the lower part has been considered to be of Karroo age by some geologists, while others regard the whole formation to be of Cretaceous age.
On the Karroo are numerous ostrich farms. Lucerne is very largely grown as fodder for the cattle.
Over the Karroo and other arid regions some io,000 boreholes had been sunk to depths varying from 50 to 500 ft., their yield being 60,000,000 gallons a year.
Karroo any arid district; now the name of definite regions (from the Hottentot).
Marloth, Das Kapland, insonderheit das Reich der Kapflora, das Waldgebiet and die Karroo, pfianzengeographisch dargestellt (Jena, 1908); F.
KARROO, two extensive plateaus in the Cape province, South Africa, known respectively as the Great and Little Karroo.
Karroo is a corruption of Karusa, a Hottentot word meaning dry, barren, and its use as a place-name indicates the character of the plateaus so designated.
The Little (also called Southern) Karroo is the table-land nearest the southern coast-line of the Cape, and is bounded north by the Zwaarteberg, which separates it from the Great Karroo.
From west to east the Little Karroo has a length of some 200 m., whilst its average width is 30 m.
West of the Zwaarteberg the Little Karroo merges into the Great Karroo.
The Great Karroo is of much larger extent.
Whilst the Little Karroo is divided by a chain of hills which run across it from east to west, and varies in altitude from 1000 to 2000 ft., the Great Karroo has more the aspect of a vast plain and has a level of from 2000 to 3000 ft.
The chief characteristics of the Karroo are the absence of running water during a great part of the year and the consequent parched aspect of the country.
There is little vegetation save stunted shrubs, such as the mimosa (which generally marks the river beds), wild pomegranate, and wax heaths, known collectively as Karroo bush.
Such parts of the Karroo as are under perennial irrigation are among the most productive lands in South Africa.
There are also numerous ostrich farms, in particular in the districts of Oudtshoorn and Ladismith in the Little Karroo, where lucerne grows with extraordinary luxuriance.
The Karroo is admirably adapted to sufferers from pulmonary complaints.
A marked feature of the climate is the great daily range (nearly 30°) in temperature; the Karroo towns are also subject to violent dust storms. Game, formerly plentiful, has been, with the exception of buck, almost exterminated.
In a looser sense the term Karroo is also used of the vast northern plains of the Cape which are part of the inner table-land of the continent.
Both are considered to represent the Karroo formation of South Africa.
The Adigrat Sandstone possibly represents some portion of the Karroo formation of South Africa.
The largest town in the western part of the Great Karroo, it lies, at an elevation of 2792 ft., at the foot of the southern slopes of the Nieuwveld mountains.
Having crossed the Little Karroo, from which rise minor mountain chains, a second high range has to be climbed.
Northwards the Karroo (q.v.) is bounded by the ramparts of the great inner tableland, of which only a comparatively small portion is in Cape Colony.
This sequence of hill and plain - namely (I) the coast plain, (2) first range of hills, (3) first plateau (Little Karroo), Longitude East 25 of Greenwich Scale, I:12,600,000 English Miles 50 r \??
This plateau is called the Southern or Little Karroo, Karroo being a (4) second range of hills, (5) second plateau (the Great Karroo), (6) main chain of mountains guarding, (7) the vast interior tableland - is characteristic of the greater part of the colony but is not clearly marked in the south-east and north-west borders.
After the periodical rains, the Karroo and the great plains of Bushmanland are converted into vast fields of grass and flowering shrubs, but the summer sun reduces them again to a barren and burnt-up aspect.
The Gamka rises in the Nieuwveld not far from Beaufort West, traverses the Great Karroo from north to south, and forces a passage through the Zwarteberg.
Crossing the Little Karroo, it is joined from the east by the Olifants (115 m.), a stream which rises in the Great Karroo, being known in its upper course as the Traka, and pierces the Zwarteberg near its eastern end.
Thence it flows west across the Little Karroo past Oudtshoorn to its junction with the Gamka.
The Touws (90 m.),which rises in the Great Karroo not far from the sources of the Hex river, is a tributary of the Groote river.
Flowing south-east, it is joined by the Kariega on the left, and breaking through the escarpment of the Great Karroo, on the lower level changes its name to the Groote, the hills which overhang it to the north-east being known as Groote River Heights.
Sunday river does not, like so many of the Cape streams, change its name on passing from the Great to the Little Karroo and again on reaching the coast plain.
It rises in the Sneeuwberg north-west of Graaff Reinet, flows south-east through one of the most fertile districts of the Great Karroo, which it pierces at the western end of the Zuurberg (of the coast chain), and reaches the ocean in Algoa Bay.
Several small streams rising in the Zuurberg (of the inner chain) unite to form the Great Fish river which passes through Cradock, and crossing the Karroo, changes its general direction from south to east, and is joined by the Kooner (or Koonap) and Kat, both of which rise in the Winterberg.
Although, like the other streams which cross the Karroo, the river is sometimes dry in its upper course, it has an estimated annual discharge of 51,724,000,000 cubic ft.
A line drawn from Port Elizabeth north-west across the Karroo in the direction of Walfish Bay roughly divides the regions of the winter and summer rains.