Inoculation protects against attack, and greatly modifies the illness when it fails to protect.
Inoculation was extensively tried in some cases.
He was consulted as an oracle on all questions of casuistry - as, for example, on the lawfulness of inoculation for the small-pox.
From the fact that bacilli are hardly ever found in the blood of bubonic cases it may be inferred that they are arrested by the lymphatic glands next above the seat of inoculation, and that the fight - which is the illness - takes place largely in the bubo; in non-bubonic cases they are not so arrested, and the fight takes place in the general circulatory system, or in the lungs.
Inoculation is harmless, and the results obtained in India justify a favourable opinion of its protective efficacy.'
(4) The conclusions of the Institute coincide with those of the commission that in all probability tetanus was at the time of inoculation in the fluid contained in the bottle, but that it is impossible to determine at what stage in its history or in what way the bottle (53-n) became contaminated."
Would the inoculation of the attenuated virus have a remedial effect on an animal already bitten ?
He began the practice of inoculation for hydrophobia in 1885.
Serum and bile inoculation were the means of saving a considerable percentage of the herds.
In many cases it has been found that inoculation, whether of the soil or of the seed, has not made any appreciable difference to the growth of the crop, a result no doubt due to the fact that the soil had already contained within it an abundant supply of suitable organisms. But in other instances greatly increased yields have been obtained where inoculation has been practised.
He also wrote in favour of inoculation, and on various other subjects, mainly connected with his work in South America.
The Bombay Plague Research Committee, whose experience is unequalled, say: " In a number of instances points of inoculation were found on the extremities of patients, from which plague cultures were obtained, and in these cases buboes were found above the point of inoculation.
The idea of inoculation, therefore, was to infect an individual with a mild form of the disease, so that he should escape infection by a more virulent one.
By inoculating first with a weak virus and then with others which were stronger and stronger, he was able completely to protect oxen either from the effects of inoculation with the strongest virus or from infection through contact with other animals suffering from the disorder.
The principles of protective inoculation have been developed and practically applied on a large scale, notably by W.
(i) the discovery of a bacterium in the affected tissues by means of the microscope; (2) the obtaining of the bacterium in pure culture; and (3) the production of the disease by inoculation with a pure culture.
Each bacterium capable of growth gives rise to a colony visible to the naked eye, and if the colonies are sufficiently apart, an inoculation can be made from any one to a tube of culture-medium and a pure culture obtained.
It is found that if the inoculation be made deep down in a solid medium, growth of an anaerobic organism will take place, especially if the medium contains some reducing agent such as glucose.
In testing the effects of bacteria by inoculation the smaller rodents, rabbits, guinea-pigs, and mice, are usually employed.
For purposes of inoculation young vigorous cultures must be used.
By immunity is meant non-susceptibility to a given disease, or to experimental inoculation with a given bacterium or toxin.
Animal may be readily susceptible to a disease on experimental inoculation, and yet rarely or never suffer from it naturally, because the necessary conditions of infection are not supplied in nature.
The methods of active immunity have been practically applied in preventive inoculation against disease; those of passive immunity have given us serum therapeutics.
Hence follows the idea of producing a modified attack of the disease as a means of prevention - a principle which had been previously applied in inoculation against smallpox.
Of the chief methods used in producing active immunity the first is by inoculation with bacteria whose virulence has been diminished, i.e.
Cultures of varying degree of virulence may be obtained by such methods, and immunity can be gradually increased by inoculation with vaccines of increasing virulence.
Almost immediately afterwards he was inoculated for smallpox, which was raging in Princeton and vicinity, and, always feeble, he died of the inoculation on the 28th of March 1758.
In areas where Jenner's techniques were available, infections fell, and when inoculation became mandatory, they plummeted.
The odour alone of guaco has been said to cause in snakes a state of stupor and torpidity; and Humboldt, who observed that the near approach of a rod steeped in guaco-juice was obnoxious to the venomous Coluber corallinus, was of opinion that inoculation with it imparts to the perspiration an odour which makes reptiles unwilling to bite.
From supersaturated solutions the form unstable at the temperature of the experiment is, as a rule, separated, especially on the introduction of a crystal of the unstable form; and, in some cases, similar inoculation of the fused substance is attended by the same result.
It encountered many difficulties, and until the definite proof of the stegomyia hypothesis of yellowfever inoculation made by the United States army surgeons in Cuba in 1900, the greatest problem seemed insoluble.