Inoculation protects against attack, and greatly modifies the illness when it fails to protect.
Two methods of protective inoculation have been used.
Inoculation was extensively tried in some cases.
He was consulted as an oracle on all questions of casuistry - as, for example, on the lawfulness of inoculation for the small-pox.
He began the practice of inoculation for hydrophobia in 1885.
Inoculation is harmless, and the results obtained in India justify a favourable opinion of its protective efficacy.'
The principles of protective inoculation have been developed and practically applied on a large scale, notably by W.
Would the inoculation of the attenuated virus have a remedial effect on an animal already bitten ?
From the fact that bacilli are hardly ever found in the blood of bubonic cases it may be inferred that they are arrested by the lymphatic glands next above the seat of inoculation, and that the fight - which is the illness - takes place largely in the bubo; in non-bubonic cases they are not so arrested, and the fight takes place in the general circulatory system, or in the lungs.
In testing the effects of bacteria by inoculation the smaller rodents, rabbits, guinea-pigs, and mice, are usually employed.
Serum and bile inoculation were the means of saving a considerable percentage of the herds.
He also wrote in favour of inoculation, and on various other subjects, mainly connected with his work in South America.
The idea of inoculation, therefore, was to infect an individual with a mild form of the disease, so that he should escape infection by a more virulent one.
For purposes of inoculation young vigorous cultures must be used.
By immunity is meant non-susceptibility to a given disease, or to experimental inoculation with a given bacterium or toxin.
Cultures of varying degree of virulence may be obtained by such methods, and immunity can be gradually increased by inoculation with vaccines of increasing virulence.
In areas where Jenner's techniques were available, infections fell, and when inoculation became mandatory, they plummeted.
Pasteur's inoculation against hydrophobia is on the same principle.
In many cases it has been found that inoculation, whether of the soil or of the seed, has not made any appreciable difference to the growth of the crop, a result no doubt due to the fact that the soil had already contained within it an abundant supply of suitable organisms. But in other instances greatly increased yields have been obtained where inoculation has been practised.
The Bombay Plague Research Committee, whose experience is unequalled, say: " In a number of instances points of inoculation were found on the extremities of patients, from which plague cultures were obtained, and in these cases buboes were found above the point of inoculation.
Inoculation with Haffkine's prophylactic fluid should be offered to all persons willing to avail themselves of it.
(4) The conclusions of the Institute coincide with those of the commission that in all probability tetanus was at the time of inoculation in the fluid contained in the bottle, but that it is impossible to determine at what stage in its history or in what way the bottle (53-n) became contaminated."
By inoculation with increasing doses of these the resistance of the organism is greatly increased and the invading microbes destroyed.
By inoculating first with a weak virus and then with others which were stronger and stronger, he was able completely to protect oxen either from the effects of inoculation with the strongest virus or from infection through contact with other animals suffering from the disorder.
(i) the discovery of a bacterium in the affected tissues by means of the microscope; (2) the obtaining of the bacterium in pure culture; and (3) the production of the disease by inoculation with a pure culture.
Each bacterium capable of growth gives rise to a colony visible to the naked eye, and if the colonies are sufficiently apart, an inoculation can be made from any one to a tube of culture-medium and a pure culture obtained.
It is found that if the inoculation be made deep down in a solid medium, growth of an anaerobic organism will take place, especially if the medium contains some reducing agent such as glucose.
Animal may be readily susceptible to a disease on experimental inoculation, and yet rarely or never suffer from it naturally, because the necessary conditions of infection are not supplied in nature.
The methods of active immunity have been practically applied in preventive inoculation against disease; those of passive immunity have given us serum therapeutics.
Hence follows the idea of producing a modified attack of the disease as a means of prevention - a principle which had been previously applied in inoculation against smallpox.
Of the chief methods used in producing active immunity the first is by inoculation with bacteria whose virulence has been diminished, i.e.
Almost immediately afterwards he was inoculated for smallpox, which was raging in Princeton and vicinity, and, always feeble, he died of the inoculation on the 28th of March 1758.
From supersaturated solutions the form unstable at the temperature of the experiment is, as a rule, separated, especially on the introduction of a crystal of the unstable form; and, in some cases, similar inoculation of the fused substance is attended by the same result.
It encountered many difficulties, and until the definite proof of the stegomyia hypothesis of yellowfever inoculation made by the United States army surgeons in Cuba in 1900, the greatest problem seemed insoluble.
The Cuban coast was uninterruptedly full of infection, and the danger of an outbreak in each year was never absent, until the work of the United States army in 1901-1902 conclusively proved that this disease, though ineradicable by the most extreme sanitary measures, based on the accepted theory of its origin as a filth-disease, could be eradicated entirely by removing the possibility of inoculation by the Stegomyia mosquito.
His labours in the decline of life were chiefly directed to the doctrine of probabilities in reference to practical purposes, and in particular to economical subjects, as, for example, to inoculation, and to the duration of married life in the two sexes, as well as to the relative proportion of male and female births.
At Hubli, where nearly the whole population was inoculated between the lath of May and the 27th of September ' The system of inoculation against plague with a fluid prepared from sterilized virus of the disease was introduced in India by Professor Haffkine early in 1897.
During the smallpox epidemic of 1721 he attempted in vain to have treatment by inoculation employed, for the first time in America; and for this he was bitterly attacked on all sides, and his life was at one time in danger; but, nevertheless, he used the treatment on his son, who recovered, and he wrote An Account of the Method and further Success of Inoculating for the Small Pox in London (r 721).
On the other hand, he found the weakened virus could be again strengthened by inoculating a feeble animal such as a guinea-pig a day or two old with it, and then inoculating stronger and stronger animals: an increase in strength was gained with each inoculation, until at last the virus could attack the strongest.
If the conditions weren't sterile—a word that was not even comprehended at the time—the inoculation didn't work, or worse, introduced a new disease.
In this manner organisms obtained from red clover can be grown and applied to the seed of red clover; and similar inoculation can be arranged for other species, so that an application of the bacteria most suited to the particular crop to be cultivated can be assured.