This so-called direct effect of external conditions upon the form and structure of the body differs from the indirect effect in that the resulting variations bear a relation, of the nature of adaptation, to those conditions; the effect of the conditions is not only to cause variation, but to cause variation in a particular direction.
In its final form, the outcome of an extended and complicated literary process, the Gilgamesh Epic covered twelve tablets, each tablet devoted to one adventure in which the hero plays a direct or indirect part, and the whole covering according to the most plausible estimate about 3000 lines.
Several special examples and other indirect indications show that the wealthier Romans possessed large familiae.
It is estimated that Sardinia pays, in local and general, direct and indirect taxation of all kinds, 23,000,000 lire (920,000), a sum corresponding to 35.44 lire per head.
An administrative tribunal called the cour des corn ptes subjects the accounts of the states financial agents (trsorierspayeurs, receveurs of registration fees, of customs, of indirect taxes, &c.) and of the communesi to a close investigation, and a vote of definitive settlement is finally passed by parliament.
Even before the edict of Milan, at least as early as the latter half of the 3rd century, the spiritual sentences of deposition from office had sometimes indirect temporal consequences recognized by the secular courts.
Turgot's measures succeeded in considerably reducing the deficit, and raised the national credit to such an extent that in 1776, just before his fall, he was able to negotiate a loan with some Dutch bankers at 4%; but the deficit was still so large as to prevent him from attempting at once to realize his favourite scheme of substituting for indirect taxation a single tax on land.
This last surtax, which produces about £T90,000 per annum, was specially affected to a loan, known as the " Tejhizat-i-'Askerieh of 1905," of £T2,640,000, by virtue of a contract between the government and the Deutsche Bank (April 17, ' It should be noted that the classification of the revenues included respectively under the " direct " and " indirect " categories has now been quite properly changed, the sheep-tax, tithes, mining royalties and forest royalties being comprised under " direct taxes "; stamps and registration duties are placed in a special category, and salt and tobacco under " monopolies."
The remaining " indirect contributions " are port and lighthouse dues, £T148,426.
Thus there is no essential difference between the direct and the indirect action of external conditions, the difference is one of degree only.
But the gradual and indirect results of the Norman conquest of England are easily to be seen to this day, and they have been largely, though indirectly, results for good.
A state system will be compelled, by the exigencies of the public treasury, to arrange its rates to pay interest on its securities; a private company will generally be prevented, by the indirect competition of railways in other parts of the country which it serves, from doing very much more than this.
By far the most important " indirect " revenue is that produced by the customs, consisting of import, export and transit duties, and various unspecified receipts.
Two types of budding must be distinguished - the direct, so-called palingenetic type, and the indirect, so-called coenogenetic type.
There is no conclusive ground for regarding the action of this change as having been direct, it is more reasonable to regard it as indirect, having acted as a general stimulus to which the ever-increasing complexity of the sporophyte was the response.
The eyes in both cases were inlaid, those of the lions with red jasper, white shell and blue schist: this imitation of the eyes in stone as well as metal figures was a feature common to both arts, which were at this time assuredly not without direct or indirect connexion.
After the war with Russia, in order to obtain credit from the Imperial Ottoman Bank and local financiers, who refused any further accommodation unless their previous and further advances were amply secured, revenues known as the " six indirect contributions " were handed over to a committee of local bankers (by decree of Nov.
In Holland he may not enter into any agreement, direct or indirect, with a medical man with regard to the supply of medicines.
In illustration of the indirect response, the evolution of the Bryophyta and of more highly organized plants may be briefly considered.
Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
But the destruction of Jerusalem is not quite unique, and somewhat later we meet with indirect evidence for at least one similar disaster upon which the records are silent.
The revenues figuring under " indirect contributions " thus reach a total of £T4,825,812.
III, Hypothetical transition from II to the indirect method with an entocodon; the formation of the manubrium is retarded, that of the umbrella hastened (IIIa, b).
Excluded from parliament by the fatal error of his youth, he was compelled to resort to indirect means of working out his plans by influencing public men.
Indirect contributions, or more familiarly " customs," are allowed a credit of £T512,670.