The indirect effects of temperature are also important.
Some oaks are of indirect importance from products formed by their insect enemies.
The indirect results, however, were incalculably great.
She stood on a covered landing of a fortress made of black stones overlooking a parched desert beneath dual suns too faded to provide anything other than indirect light.
The policy of fiscal transformation inaugurated by the Left increased revenue from indirect taxation from 17,000,000 in 1876 to more than 24,000,000 in 1887, by substituting heavy corn duties for the grist tax, and by raising the sugar and petroleum duties to unprecedented levels.
The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
Several special examples and other indirect indications show that the wealthier Romans possessed large familiae.
Fall the " indirect contributions " as now reclassified.
The remaining " indirect contributions " are port and lighthouse dues, £T148,426.
It is estimated that Sardinia pays, in local and general, direct and indirect taxation of all kinds, 23,000,000 lire (920,000), a sum corresponding to 35.44 lire per head.
They are now usually of special design, and may be divided into three classes - indirect radiators, direct radiators and direct ventilating radiators.
Indirect radiators are placed beneath the floor of the apartment to be heated and give off heat through a grating.
Per inhabitant, from indirect taxation £2: 4: 6, and the total revenue from all sources £35,699,782, equal to £8: 16: 2 per inhabitant.
Especially noteworthy in the germinal budding of Margellium is the formation of the entocodon, as in the vegetative budding of the indirect type.
More indirect methods, such as the grafting of less resistant scions on more vigorous stocks, of raising special late or early varieties by crossing or selection, and so on, have also met with success; but it must be understood that resistant in such cases usually means that some peculiarity of quick growth, early ripening or other life-feature in the plant is for the time being taken advantage of.
Turgot's measures succeeded in considerably reducing the deficit, and raised the national credit to such an extent that in 1776, just before his fall, he was able to negotiate a loan with some Dutch bankers at 4%; but the deficit was still so large as to prevent him from attempting at once to realize his favourite scheme of substituting for indirect taxation a single tax on land.
As an example of the use of Ostwald's energy-equations for the indirect determination we may take the case of carbon monoxide.
200,000 Indirect taxes 1,715,000 Financial adminis tration..
The group specially described as indirect taxes includes those on alcohol, wine, beer, cider and other alcoholic drinks, on passenger and goods traffic by railway, on licences to distillers, spirit-sellers, &c., on salt and on sugar of home manufacture.
An administrative tribunal called the cour des corn ptes subjects the accounts of the states financial agents (trsorierspayeurs, receveurs of registration fees, of customs, of indirect taxes, &c.) and of the communesi to a close investigation, and a vote of definitive settlement is finally passed by parliament.
In Modena Duke Francis, ambitious of enlarging his territories, coquetted with the Carbonari of Paris, and opened indirect negotiations with Menotti, the revolutionary leader in his state, believing that he might assist him in his plans.
Thus there is no essential difference between the direct and the indirect action of external conditions, the difference is one of degree only.
But the gradual and indirect results of the Norman conquest of England are easily to be seen to this day, and they have been largely, though indirectly, results for good.
A state system will be compelled, by the exigencies of the public treasury, to arrange its rates to pay interest on its securities; a private company will generally be prevented, by the indirect competition of railways in other parts of the country which it serves, from doing very much more than this.
This last surtax, which produces about £T90,000 per annum, was specially affected to a loan, known as the " Tejhizat-i-'Askerieh of 1905," of £T2,640,000, by virtue of a contract between the government and the Deutsche Bank (April 17, ' It should be noted that the classification of the revenues included respectively under the " direct " and " indirect " categories has now been quite properly changed, the sheep-tax, tithes, mining royalties and forest royalties being comprised under " direct taxes "; stamps and registration duties are placed in a special category, and salt and tobacco under " monopolies."
It remains to trace the influence, direct or indirect, of the poet on the novelist.
Two types of budding must be distinguished - the direct, so-called palingenetic type, and the indirect, so-called coenogenetic type.
The indirect mode of budding (figs.
In Holland he may not enter into any agreement, direct or indirect, with a medical man with regard to the supply of medicines.
In illustration of the indirect response, the evolution of the Bryophyta and of more highly organized plants may be briefly considered.
There is no conclusive ground for regarding the action of this change as having been direct, it is more reasonable to regard it as indirect, having acted as a general stimulus to which the ever-increasing complexity of the sporophyte was the response.
This so-called direct effect of external conditions upon the form and structure of the body differs from the indirect effect in that the resulting variations bear a relation, of the nature of adaptation, to those conditions; the effect of the conditions is not only to cause variation, but to cause variation in a particular direction.
2 - The course of events from the middle of the 6th century B.C. to the close of the Persian period is lamentably obscure, although much indirect evidence indicates that this age holds the key to the growth of written biblical history.
By the indirect method Kopp derived the following atomic volumes: C. 0.
The eyes in both cases were inlaid, those of the lions with red jasper, white shell and blue schist: this imitation of the eyes in stone as well as metal figures was a feature common to both arts, which were at this time assuredly not without direct or indirect connexion.
In its final form, the outcome of an extended and complicated literary process, the Gilgamesh Epic covered twelve tablets, each tablet devoted to one adventure in which the hero plays a direct or indirect part, and the whole covering according to the most plausible estimate about 3000 lines.
The theoretical absolutism of the sultan had, indeed, always been tempered not only by traditional usage, local privilege, the juridical and spiritual precepts of the Koran and the Sunnet, and their 'Ulema interpreters, and the privy council, but for nearly a century by the direct or indirect pressure of the European powers, and during the reigns of Abd-ul-Aziz and of Abd-ul-Hamid by the growing force of public opinion.
By far the most important " indirect " revenue is that produced by the customs, consisting of import, export and transit duties, and various unspecified receipts.
The revenues figuring under " indirect contributions " thus reach a total of £T4,825,812.
After the war with Russia, in order to obtain credit from the Imperial Ottoman Bank and local financiers, who refused any further accommodation unless their previous and further advances were amply secured, revenues known as the " six indirect contributions " were handed over to a committee of local bankers (by decree of Nov.
Excluded from parliament by the fatal error of his youth, he was compelled to resort to indirect means of working out his plans by influencing public men.
Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
The indirect taxes comprise the charges on registration; stamps; customs; and a group of taxes specially described as indirect taxes.
But the destruction of Jerusalem is not quite unique, and somewhat later we meet with indirect evidence for at least one similar disaster upon which the records are silent.
In these and other Chaetopods the coelom is also put into indirect relations with the outside world by the nephridia and by the gonad ducts.
The equivalence of the four hydrogen atoms of methane rested on indirect evidence, e.g.
Want of data for the elements, however, restricts this method to narrow limits, and hence an indirect method is necessary.
Indirect contributions, or more familiarly " customs," are allowed a credit of £T512,670.
Even more drastic were the changes in the electoral machinery, by far the most complicated in Europe, established by the law of 1905.6 This was based on the principle of indirect 3 Of this M.