After the administration of justice he directed his organizing activity, as the circumstances demanded, chiefly towards financial questions - the incidence of taxation in the conquered territories,' and the application of the vast resources which poured into the treasury at Medina.
So that, were a glass so exactly figured as to collect any one sort of rays into one point, it could not collect those also into the same point, which having the same Incidence upon the same Medium are apt to suffer a different refraction.
(1) the planes of incidence and reflection are coincident, and (2) the angles of incidence and reflection are equal.
For the period preceding British rule the records have not been so well preserved, but there is ample evidence to show that famine was just as frequent in its incidence and infinitely more deadly in its effects under the native rulers of India.
Exceptionally, it may be added, as regards the licence taxes, which occupy quite an inferior place in the British system of taxation for imperial purposes, that the question whether some of them are not really direct in their incidence on the first person charged may also be raised, although they are classed with indirect taxes.
In describing the principal taxes which are employed in 'the United Kingdom to provide for the national expenditure, observations have necessarily been made upon the incidence, probable or assumed, upon the taxpayer, and on the question how far they may fall equally on the whole community without any special incidence being traceable.
Seligman, Shifting and Incidence of Taxation (2nd ed., 1899); Garnier, Traite de Finances; Cohn, System der National-Okonomie; Wagner, Finanzwissenschaft; Roscher, System der Finanzwissenschaft.
Differences of refractive index produce their greatest dispersive effects when incidence on the refracting surface is nearly tangential.
If the angle of incidence exceeds the limiting angle.
To establish, therefore, any fair account of the incidence of indirect taxes on different classes of the community, real classes being distinguished, and not a mere rough grouping into so-called classes of units who are altogether heterogeneous, is probably beyond the skill of man.
The law is defective and unfair in its incidence, and it is not applicable to foreigners.
A scheme of taxation - the Saladin tithe - was imposed on all who did not take the cross; and this taxation, while on the one hand it drove many to take the cross in order to escape its incidence, on the other hand provided a necessary financial basis for military operations.'
When the grating is so situated that the angles of incidence and diffraction are equal.
The angle between its directions of incidence and emergence, after one, two, three or more internal reflections.
As soon divorce the investigation of the shape and material of a mirror from the laws of the incidence of the rays that form images in it, and call it a science of reflection!
If the object point 0 be infinitely distant, u, and u 2 are to be replaced by h l and h 2, the perpendicular heights of incidence; the " sine condition " then becomes sin u',/h 1 = sin u' 2 /h 2 .
Light from an arc lamp was so directed that only that part reached the spectroscope which fell upon the flame of the burner at grazing incidence, and was thereby refracted.
Another exception to the incidence of tithes were abbey lands.
The population of the city is 821,764, but during the earlier plague period large numbers fled, so that the foregoing figures do not give the true plague incidence according to population.
In the course of fifty years, it may be said, the balance will be rectified, and the whole class to which the individuals belong, and the property they own, will be visited in turn, so that this taxation should be credited to them in an account of the incidence of taxes generally; but fifty years is altogether too long a period for such adjustments to be made.
Thus a very large proportion of the total revenue cannot be made available for an account showing the incidence of taxation.
These, it is said, can be distributed among different classes of tax-payers, because the income tax falls on the owners of incomes of all kinds of property subject to the duty, if their incomes are above a certain limit, while the incidence of customs and excise duties can be ascertained by inquiries as to the consumption of dutiable articles by different classes.
By the methods of the differential calculus or geometrically, that the deviation increases with the refractive index, the angle of incidence remaining constant.
Statistical inquiries as to the incidence of taxation or of particular taxes, though ideal or even approximate equality of a palpable arithmetical kind is practically unattainable by governments, are not altogether to be put aside.
In most European countries not much less than half the annual deaths take place amongst children below five years of age, upon the total number of whom the incidence falls to the extent of from 40 to 120 per mille.
If the object point be infinitely distant, all rays received by the first member of the system are parallel, and their intersections, after traversing the system, vary according to their " perpendicular height of incidence," i.e.
In order to render spherical aberration and the deviation from the sine condition small throughout the whole aperture, there is given to a ray with a finite angle of aperture u* (with infinitely distant objects: with a finite height of incidence the same distance of intersection, and the same sine ratio as to one neighbouring the axis (u* or h* may not be much smaller than the largest aperture U or H to be used in the system).
The practical optician names such systems: "corrected for the angle of aperture (the height of incidence or the angle of field of view w*."
A tax is not always paid by those on whom it is imposed; it is therefore necessary to determine the ultimate, as distinguished from the immediate, incidence of every;form of [taxation.
The metal-working industries also follow a geographical distribution, mainly governed by the incidence of the coal-fields, as well as by that of the chief districts for the production of - iron-ore already indicated, such as the Cleveland and Durham and the Furness districts.
The incidence is probably much the same as that of the income tax itself, though there are curious questions as to the ultimate incidence as between owners and occupiers of houses.
It would be hard, however, to persuade the mass of occupiers in England that they do not pay the rates, so that the expedient of dividing the rates between owner and occupier, though it cannot affect their real incidence to a substantial extent, constantly finds favour.
The incidence of taxation is, however, a special subject for discussion, and is connected with various large issues, such as that of Free Trade, which are of deep interest to economic students.
The starting-point of discussions as to incidence of taxation is a classical passage in Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (book v.
The whole of the British revenue from post office and telegraph service, and the whole of the stamp revenue, are derived from charges whose exact incidence cannot be traced.
Julius's phenomenon seems inseparable from grazing incidence, and hence any explanation it supplies depends upon his hypothetical tubular structure for layers of equal density.
He adds: " This made me take reflections into consideration, and finding them regular, so that the Angle of Reflection of all sorts of Rays was equal to their Angle of Incidence; I understood, that by their mediation Optick instruments might be brought to any degree of perfection imaginable, provided a Reflecting substance could be found, which would polish as finely as Glass, and reflect as much light, as glass transmits, and the art of communicating to it a Parabolick figure be also attained.
This act recommended him to popular favour, and he was called to the government of the city - but only for the distinct purpose of establishing the "catasta," a property tax which should fall with equal incidence on every citizen.
The general conclusion of the Famine Commission of 1901 was that " except in Bombay, where it is full, the incidence of land revenue is low to moderate in ordinary years, and it should in no way per se be the cause of indebtedness."
But, having ascertained by experiment that for all colours of light the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflexion, he turned his attention to the construction of reflecting telescopes.
The largest incidence in Bombay was on young adults; but then they are more numerous and more exposed to infection, because they go about more than the younger and the older.
Simpson, in The Practitioner (Dec. 1906), gives an analysis of the results of Haffkine's serum inoculations as follows: - In Poona, out of 5595 uninoculated cases the incidence was 6.8%, while in 1300 inoculated cases it was only 0.33%.
The formation of morainic dams, and in some cases the perhaps from the incidence of erratic upheaval of the land.
The distinction between a burial ground provided under the Burial Acts and a cemetery provided under the act of 1879 is important in many ways, of which one only need be mentioned here - the expenses under the Burial Acts are paid out of the poor rate, while the expenses under the act of 1879 are paid in an urban district out of the general district rate, the incidence of which differs materially from that of the poor rate, as will be seen hereafter.
Equality of the angles of incidence and reflection, that the reflected ray QR is such that the angles RQC and CQP are equal; to determine the caustic, it is necessary to determine the envelope of this line.
Export duties, it may be observed, are not important in systems of taxation generally, as there are few articles where the charge will not really fall on the wages of labour and profits of capital within the country imposing them; but opium grown in India is a well-known exception, and in the West Indies export duties on principal articles of production, in spite of their incidence, have been found a convenient source of revenue.
One difficulty is caused by the large proportion of the taxes in almost every system of taxation, and at any rate in the British system, where the exact incidence is in no way traceable, or where there is no sort of general agreement as to the incidence.
The zemstvos were originally given large powers in relation to the incidence of taxation, and such questions as education, public health, roads and the like.
It then appeared that under certain angles of incidence parts of the resulting spectra were completely polarized.
Again, a comparison between ratinfested and rat-free districts in Bombay showed a much higher incidence of plague in the latter.
The tres Daciae formed a commune in so far that they had a common capital, Sarmizegethusa, and a common diet, which discussed provincial affairs, formulated complaints and adjusted the incidence of taxation; but in other respects they were practically independent provinces, each under an ordinary procurator, subordinate to a governor of consular rank.
An admissible error of phase of 4X will correspond to an error of IX in a reflecting and 2X in a (glass) refracting surface, the incidence in both cases being perpendicular.
Since the angles of incidence and refraction are connected by the relation sin i=µ sin r (Snell's Law), µ being the index of refraction of the medium, then the problem may be stated as follows: to determine the value of the angle i which makes D = 2 (i - r) +n (7r - 2r) a maximum or minimum, in which i and r are connected by the relation sin i =µ sin r, µ being a constant.
An analysis of the innumerable outbreaks in various parts of Europe indicates that the geological features of the affected districts play a less important part in the incidence of the disease than soil dampness.
Adam Smith does not go minutely into the incidence of taxation.
Less importance in this respect, and in other disorders many of them of grave incidence, is the knowledge of the phenomena of embolism and of thrombosis, also gained during the latter half of the 19th century - W.