The only motive for advocating it is the prejudice of absolute idealism which would deny that sensation has any part whatever in the constitution of experience.
On the one hand there has arisen a school of thinkers of the type of Thomas Hill Green, who have brought to bear on his metaphysical views the idealism of modern German thinkers.
The strain of the next three years' continuous work undermined his health and his eyesight, and he was compelled to retire from his professorship. During these years he had published works on Plato and Socrates and a history of philosophy (1875); but after his retirement he further developed his philosophical position, a speculative eclecticism through which he endeavoured to reconcile metaphysical idealism with the naturalistic and mechanical standpoint of science.
Here then characteristically intuitionalism occupies a half-way house between empiricism, with its appeal to real given fact, and idealism, with its appeal to necessity.
If we answer " Yes " to that question, we pass on from intuitionalism to idealism - an idealism not on the lines of Berkeley (matter does not exist) but of Plato (things A obey an ascertainable rational necessity).
We may religion regard his ambitious programme as the last logical development of idealism and indeed of philosophy itself.
With all its idealism, Greek thought had difficulty in regarding rational necessity as absolute master of the physical world.
On the whole then Butler in personal conviction is an intuitionalist, wavering towards the idealism of his age; but in argument he is an empiricist, trying to reason every question as one of given facts.
Whatever one may think of the cogency of such arguments, it seems safe to conclude that thinkers, who dislike constructive idealism, but accept time and space as boundless given quanta, reach in that way the thought of infinity, and if they are theists, necessarily connect their theism with reflexions on the nature of Time and Space.
Besides the stream of tendency which flowed from Kant in the direction of idealism, two other streams emerged from him, often but not always blending.
When Otto Ritschl interprets values hedonistically - recoiling from Hegel's idealism the whole way to empiricism - he brings again to our minds the doubt whether hedonist ethics can serve as a foundation for any religious belief.
Wolff's list is of some historical importance - atheism, deism (a God without care for men) and naturalism (denial of supernatural revelation); anthropomorphism (assigning a human body to God); materialism, and idealism (non-existence of matter); paganism (polytheism); Manichaeism, Spinozism, Epicureanism.
Such vicissitudes were the ordinary lot of the Jews for several centuries, and it was their own inner life - the pure life of the home, the idealism of the synagogue, and the belief in ultimate Messianic redemption - that saved them from utter demoralization and despair.
However absolute a philosopher's idealism may be, he is erroneously styled a mystic if he moves towards his conclusions only by the patient labour of the reason.
To the theory of knowledge Spencer contributes a "transfigured realism," to mediate between realism and idealism, and the doctrine that "necessary truths," acquired in experience and congenitally transmitted, are a priori to the individual, though a posteriori to the race, to mediate between empiricism and apriorism.
On one side of his thought Aristotle represents a reaction against idealism and a return to the position of common-sense.
The foundations of idealism in the modern sense were laid by the thinkers who sought breathing room for mind and will in a deeper analysis of the relations of the subject to the world that it knows.
The parts of the Critique of Pure Reason, more particularly the " Deduction of the Categories " in which this theory is worked out, may be said to have laid the foundation of modern idealism - " articulum stantis aut cadentis dectrinae."
Intelligible as this development of Kantian idealism seems in the light of subsequent philosophy, the first statement of it in Hegel was not free from obscurity.
But idealism has insisted from the time of Plato on the distinction between what is actual in time and space and the reality that can only partially be revealed in it.
Whatever may have been Hegel's own belief in regard to personal immortality, the logical issue of his absolute idealism has been well stated by W.
Ritchie's Natural Rights, from the point of view of a very hostile (evolutionary) idealism, sketches the early history of the phrase Natural Law.'
And thus Kant's idealism is incomplete.
The great critic of scepticism has diverged from idealism toward scepticism again, or has given his idealism a sceptical colour, mitigated - but only mitigated - by faith in the moral consciousness.
The Absolute Idealism of G.
MacTaggart, works round from idealism to an eternal quasi polytheistic society of equal souls.
Schultz); but it is surely significant that the great history idealism of Plato was developed from his suggestions.
The main line in pure philosophy runs on from Kant's wavering and sceptical idealism to the all-including gnosis of Hegel.'
And idealism in some cases may interpret itself in favour of pantheism rather than of theism.
Moreover, Schopenhauer's subjective idealism, and his view of time as something illusory, hindered him from viewing this process as a sequence of events in time.
The Hegelian identity of being and thought is also abandoned and the truth of realism acknowledged, an attempt being made to exhibit idealism and realism as respectively incomplete but mutually complementary systems. Ulrici's later works, while expressing the same views, are 1 :trgely occupied in proving the existence of God and the soul from the basis of scientific conceptions, and in opposition to the materialistic current of thought then popular in Germany.