3 (Helsingfors, 1898); (32) A.
Palmen, Uber paarige Ausfiihrungsgange der Geschlechtsorgane bei Insekten (Helsingfors, 1884); H.
By rail from Kuivola junction on the Helsingfors railway, on an island of the same name at the mouth of the Kymmene river.
Thomsen of Copenhagen Inscriptions de l'Orkhon (Helsingfors, 1900).
Palmen's memoirs Zur Morphologie des Tracheensystems (Leipzig, 1877) and Cber paarige Ausfuhrungsgange der Geschlechtsorgane bei Insekten (Helsingfors, 1884), contain important observations on may-flies.
5 (Helsingfors 1918), noticed in Nature Aug.
Thomsen, Inscriptions de l'Orkhon (Helsingfors, 1900) they are dried before they reach north-western Mongolia.
Lagus, Helsingfors, 1854) (on the Seljuks of Asia Minor exclusively, but of little value).
It is connected by railway with Helsingfors and Tammerfors, and is the centre of the Finnish butter export, which now amounts to over 1,000,000 yearly.
See also Paavo Snellman, Der Anfang des arianischen Streites (Helsingfors, 1904); Sigismund Rogala, Die Anfange des arianischen Streites (Paderborn, 1907).
Borga, was once a city of great dignity and importance, but the rapid growth of Helsingfors has somewhat eclipsed it.
Helsingfors followed the example of Sveaborg.
The leading cities of Finland are: Helsingfors, capital of the grand-duchy and of the province (Ian) of Nyland, principal seaport (111,654 inhabitants); Abo, capital of the Abo-BjOrneborg province and ancient capital of Finland (42,639); Tammerfors, the leading manufacturing town of the grand-duchy (40,261); Viborg, chief town of province of same name, important seaport (34,672); Ulea.- borg, capital of province (1 7,737); Vasa, or Nikolaistad, capital of Vasa Ian (18,028); Bjorneborg (16,053); Kuopio, capital of province (13,519); and Tavastehus, capital of province of the same name (5545).
The first railway was opened in 1862, and the next, from Helsingfors to St Petersburg, in 1870 (cost only £4520 per mile).
The chief articles of export are: timber and wood articles (£5,250,000), paper and paper pulp, some tissues, metallic goods, leather, &c. The chief ports are Helsingfors, Abo, Viborg, Hanger and Vasa.
For higher education there is the university of Helsingfors (formerly the Abo Academy), which in 1906 had 1921 students (328 women) and 141 professors and docents.
Besides the Helsingfors polytechnic there are a number of higher and lower technical, commercial and navigation schools.
The province of Viborg was reunited to Finland in 1811, and Abo remained the capital of the country till 1821, when the civil and military authorities were removed to Helsingfors, and the university in 1827.
At Helsingfors in 1863.
Finland was on the whole prosperous and progressive, and his statue in the great square in front of the cathedral and the senate house in Helsingfors testifies to the regard in which his memory is cherished by his Finnish subjects.
Helsingfors was without tramcars, cabs, gas and electricity; no shops except provision shops were open; public departments, schools and restaurants were closed.
Palmen, Helsingfors, 1882, and K.
The Statistical Annual for Finland - Statistisk Arsbok for Finland - published annually by the Central Statistical Bureau in Helsingfors, gives the necessary figures.
A valuable handbook of Finnish history was published at Helsingfors in 1869-1873, by Yrjo Koskinen, and has been translated into both Swedish and German.
Dr Otto Donner's Comparative Dictionary of the FinnoUgric Languages (Helsingfors and Leipzig) is in German.
Palmen, L'Ouvre demi-seculaire de la Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 1831-81 (Helsingfors, 1882); J.
Krohn, Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden waiheet (Helsingfors, 18 97); F.
Pipping, Forteckning ofver bucker pd finska spretket (Helsingfors, 1856-1857); E.
Vasenius, Ofversigt of Finlands Litteraturhistoria for skolor (Helsingfors, 1893).
By the time that the " tacit truce " had come to an end the Swedish forces were so demoralized that the mere rumour of a hostile attack made them retire panic-stricken to Helsingfors; and before the end of the year all Finland was in the hands of the Russians.
The city is second only to Helsingfors for its trade; sail-cloth, cotton and tobacco are manufactured, and there are extensive saw-mills.
The capital of the government is Uleaborg, a seaport on the Gulf of Bothnia, now connected by railway with Helsingfors (49 8 m .); pop. (1904), 17,737.