The amino derivatives are stable bases which readily yield substitution derivatives when acted upon by the halogen elements.
Molybdenum combines with the halogen elements in varying proportions, forming with chlorine a di-, tri-, tetraand penta-chloride, and similar compounds with bromine and iodine.
Several halogen compounds of sulphur are known, the most stable of which is sulphur fluoride, SF 6, which was first prepared by H.
Balard completed for many years Berzelius's group of " halogen " elements; the remaining member, fluorine, notwithstanding many attempts, remained unisolated until 1886, when Henri Moissan obtained it by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride dissolved in hydrofluoric acid.
We may, in fact, consider that the descriptive study of the various halogen compounds dates from about this time.
Of the halogen compounds of phosphorus, the trichloride was discovered by Gay Lussac and Thenard, while the pentachloride was obtained by Davy.
The oxychloride, bromides, and other compounds were subsequently discovered; here we need only notice Moissan's preparation of the trifluoride and Thorpe's discovery of the pentafluoride, a compound of especial note, for it volatilizes unchanged, giving a vapour of normal density and so demonstrating the stability of a pentavalent phosphorus compound (the pentachloride and pentabromide dissociate into a molecule of the halogen element and phosphorus trichoride).
Instances had already been recorded of cases where a halogen element replaced hydrogen with the production of a closely allied substance: Gay Lussac had prepared cyanogen chloride from hydrocyanic acid; Faraday, hexachlorethane from ethylene dichloride, &c. Here the electronegative halogens exercised a function similar to electro-positive hydrogen.
Dumas gave especial attention to such substitutions, named metalepsy (µeraXntks, exchange); and framed the following empirical laws to explain the reactions: - (1) a body containing hydrogen when substituted by a halogen loses one atom of hydrogen for every atom of halogen introduced; (2) the same holds if oxygen be present, except that when the oxygen is present as water the latter first loses its hydrogen without replacement, and then substitution according to (1) ensues.
Considering derivatives primarily concerned with transformations of the hydroxyl group, we may regard our typical acid as a fusion of a radical R CO - (named acetyl, propionyl, butyl, &c., generally according to the name of the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms) and a hydroxyl group. By replacing the hydroxyl group by a halogen, acid-haloids result; by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules, acid-anhydrides, which may be oxidized to acid-peroxides; by replacing the hydroxyl group by the group. SH, thio-acids; by replacing it by the amino group, acid-amides (q.v.); by replacing it by the group - NH NH2, acid-hydrazides.
The same absorbent' quantitatively takes up any halogen and sulphur which may be present.
By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.
The abnormal specific heats of the halogen elements may be due to a loosening of the atoms, a preliminary to the dissociation into monatomic molecules which occurs at high temperatures.
The same difference attends the introduction of the methyl group into many classes of compounds, for example, the paraffins, olefines, acetylenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters, while a slightly lower value (157.1) is found in the case of the halogen compounds, nitriles, amines, acids, ethers, sulphides and nitro compounds.
It is remarkable that the position of the halogen in the molecule has no effect on the heat of formation; for example, chlorpropylene and allylchloride, and also ethylene dichloride and ethylidene dichloride, have equal heats of formation.
Nitroparaffins may also be obtained by the action of sodium nitrite on the a-halogen fatty acids, the a-nitro fatty acids first formed readily eliminating carbon dioxide (H.
It is to be noted that only traces of the aromatic amines are produced by heating the halogen substituted benzenes with ammonia, unless the amino group be situated in the side chain, as in the case of benzylamine.
Similarly, the formation of organic halogen products may be effected by electrolytic chlorine, as, for example, in the production of chloral by the gradual introduction of alcohol into an anode cell in which the electrolyte is a strong solution of potassium chloride.
In formulating these facts Liebig at first retained the dualistic conception of the structure of acids; but he shortly afterwards perceived that this view lacked generality since the halogen acids, which contained no oxygen but yet formed salts exactly similar in properties to those containing oxygen, could not be so regarded.
An important nucleus-synthetic reaction is the saponification of nitriles, which may be obtained by the interaction of potassium cyanide with a halogen substitution derivative or a sulphonic acid.
The advantage of the new definition lies in the fact that the estimation of the chlorine (or rather of the total halogen expressed as chlorine) is sufficient to determine the salinity by a very simple operation.
8050 Cl where S is the salinity and Cl the amount of total halogen in a sample.
3, p. 319.) Ammonia finds a wide application in organic chemistry as a synthetic reagent; it reacts with alkyl iodides to form amines, with esters to form acid amides, with halogen fatty acids to form amino-acids; while it also combines with isocyanic esters to form alkyl ureas and with the mustard oils to form alkyl thioureas.
FLUORINE (symbol F, atomic weight iv), a chemical element of the halogen group. It is never found in the uncombined condition, but in combination with calcium as fluor-spar CaF2 it is widely distributed; it is also found in cryolite Na3A1F6, in fluor-apatite, CaF 2.3Ca 3 P 2 O 8, and in minute traces in seawater, in some mineral springs, and as a constituent of the enamel of the teeth.
Friend, The Theory of Valency (1909), p. iii.) The aqueous solution behaves on concentration similarly to the other halogen acids; E.
P. 2207); and by the action of ammonia on a-halogen ketonic compounds (W.
They may also be prepared by eliminating the halogen hydride from the alkyl halides by heating with alcoholic potash, or with litharge at 220° C. (A.
Eltekow, Ber., 1878, 11, p. 414); by the action of metals on the halogen compounds Cn.H 20 Br 2 i by boiling the aqueous solution of nitrites of the primary amines (V.
Chablay, Comptes rendus, 1906, 1 43, p. 123) 2CH 2 :CH CH 2 OH+2NH 3 Na = CH,:CH CH3+CH2:CH CH20Na +NaOH+2NH31 from the lower members of the series by heating them with alkyl halides in the presence of lead oxide or lime: C5H,9-I-2CH31 =2H1+ C 7 H, 4 i and by the action of the zinc alkyls upon the halogen substituted olefines.
Zeit., 1906, 30, p. 37) has shown that on passing the monohalogen derivatives of the paraffins through a glass tube containing reduced nickel, copper or cobalt at 250° C., olefines are produced, together with the halogen acids, and recombination is prevented by passing the gases through a solution of potash.
As unsaturated compounds they can combine with two monovalent atoms. Hydrogen is absorbed readily at ordinary temperature in the presence of platinum black, and paraffins are formed; the halogens (chlorine and bromine) combine directly with them, giving dihalogen substituted compounds; the halogen halides to form monohalogen derivatives (hydriodic acid reacts most readily, hydrochloric acid, least); and it is to be noted that the haloid acids attach themselves in such a manner that the halogen atom unites itself to the carbon atom which is in combination with the fewest hydrogen atoms (W.
IODINE (symbol I, atomic weight 126.92), a chemical element, belonging to the halogen group. Its name is derived from Gr.
We may quote one of the principal conclusions at which they arrived: " An inspection of our maps will show that the radical of a body is represented by certain well-marked bands, some differing in position according as it is bonded with hydrogen, or a halogen, or with carbon, oxygen or nitrogen.
G As (the root of salt, halogen, &c.).
This change only occurs when the halogen atom is in the orthoor paraposition to the - N2 - group.
Halogen acids convert it into monohalogen fatty acids, and the halogens themselves convert it into dihalogen fatty acids.
On the halogen compounds see V.
Chlor-, brom-, iodoand fluor-benzoic acids are known and can be obtained by oxidizing the corresponding halogen toluenes, or from the amido acids, or by substitution.
Nickel occludes hydrogen readily, is attacked by the halogen elements, and oxidizes easily when heated in air.
The word halogen is derived from the Greek as (sea-salt) and yevvav (to produce), and consequently means the sea-salt producer.
The halogen of lower atomic weight can displace one of higher atomic weight from its hydrogen compound, or from the salt derived from such hydrogen compound, while, on the other hand, the halogen of higher atomic weight can displace that of lower atomic weight, from the halogen oxy-acids and their salts; thus iodine will liberate chlorine from potassium chlorate and also from perchloric acid.
CHLORINE (symbol Cl, atomic weight 35.46 (0=16), a gaseous chemical element of the halogen group, taking its name from the colour, greenish-yellow (Gr.
They are obtained by condensing a halogen derivatives of ketones with acid-amides (M.
The dihydro-oxazoles or oxazolines are similarly formed when 13-halogen alkyl amides are condensed with alkali (S.
The ketenes are usually obtained by the action of zinc on ethereal or ethyl acetate solutions of halogen substituted acid chlorides or bromides.
It is decomposed by the halogen elements and also by sulphuretted hydrogen.
Compounds of antimony with all the halogen elements are known, one atom of the metal combining with three or five atoms of the halogen, except in the case of bromine, where only the tribromide is known.
It receives application in synthetic organic chemistry by virtue of its power to remove the halogen atoms from alkyl haloids, and so effect the combination of the two alkyl residues.
BROMINE (symbol Br, atomic weight 79-96), a chemical element of the halogen group, which takes its name from its pungent unpleasant smell (0pW,uos, a stench).