Thus Horsell, who was the first to introduce tints the ground, however, was made until towards the close of the 18th century, when horizontal contours and hachures regulated according to the angle of inclination of all slopes, were adopted.
The declivities of the ground are still indicated in most topographical maps by a system of strokes or hachures, first devised by L.
On the map of Germany (1:Ioo,000) a slope of 50° is shown in solid black while stippled hachures are used for gentle slopes up to 100.
There seems to be even less chance for the combination of coloured strata and hachures proposed by K.
Hachures of a rude nature first made their appearance on David Vivier's map of the environs of Paris (1674), and on Cassini's Carte de la France.
Even though the hill hachures on the older one-inch maps are not quite satisfactory, this deficiency is in a large measure compensated for by the presence of absolutely trustworthy contours.