He was no follower of their ideas, indeed often opposed to them; but he derived from Bacon an increasing stimulus towards the investigation of certain great problems of history and philosophy, while Grotius proved valuable in his study of philosophic jurisprudence.
Vico may have derived from Grotius the idea of natural law; but his discovery of the historic evolution of law was first suggested to him by his study of Roman law.
Abroad its navigators monopolized the commerce of the world, and explored unknown seas; at home the Dutch school of painting reached its acme in Rembrandt (1607-1669); and the philological reputation of the country was sustained by Grotius, Vossius and the elder Heinsius.
It is remarkable for its fine tower and chime of bells, and contains the splendid allegorical monument of William the Silent, executed by Hendrik de Keyser and his son Pieter about 1621, and the tomb of Hugo Grotius, born in Delft in 1583, whose statue, erected in 1886, stands in the market-place outside the church.
Ghysius, Oorsprong en voortgang der nederlandscher beroerten (1626); Hugo Grotius, Annales et histoire de rebus belgicis (1657); P. C. Hooft, Nederlandscher historien, 1555-1587 (1656); E.
The Protestant Grotius in his notes on Rom.
Locke had spent some years in Holland, the country of Grotius, who, with help from other great lawyers, and under a misapprehension as to the meaning of the Roman jus gentium, shaped modern concepts of international law by an appeal to law of nature.
With the systematic study of the Latin, and to a slight extent also of the Greek classics, he conjoined that of logic in the prolix system of Crousaz; and he further invigorated his reasoning powers, as well as enlarged his knowledge of metaphysics and jurisprudence, by the perusal of Locke, Grotius and Montesquieu.
In his extensive work Tractatus de legibus ac deo legislatore (reprinted, London, 1679) he is to some extent the precursor of Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf.
Though his method is throughout scholastic, he covers the same ground, and Grotius speaks of him in terms of high respect.
In his Biblia Illustrata (4 vols.), written from the point of view of a very strict belief in inspiration, his object is to refute the statements made by Hugo Grotius in his Commentaries.
Here the son received his education, until in 1595 he entered the university of Leiden, where he became the lifelong friend of Hugo Grotius, and studied classics, Hebrew, church history and theology.
Through his father's lectures Christian came under the influence of the political philosophy of Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf, and continued the study of law at Frankfort-on-Oder.
Names like Shakespeare, Grotius, Bacon, Hobbes appear in half a dozen different places.
2 This method was adopted and developed by Grotius, 3 Hammond, Clericus, Semler, Corredi and Eichhorn, Dicke, Bleek and Ewald, and the consciousness that Rome and not Jerusalem was the object of attack in Revelation became increasingly clear in the works of these scholars.
He belonged to the party of Oldenbarneveldt and Grotius, and brought down the displeasure of the government by a copy of Latin verses in honour of their friend Hoogerbeets.
His learning made him the equal and the friend of Grotius, and of the foremost contemporary scholars.
Gradually the dispute pervaded all classes of society, and the religious questions became entangled with political issues; the partisans of the house of Orange espoused the cause of the stricter Calvinism, whereas the bourgeois oligarchy of republican tendencies, led by Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius, stood for Arminianism.
In 1617 Prince Maurice of Orange committed himself definitely to the Calvinistic party, found an occasion for throwing Oldenbarnevelt and Grotius into prison, and in November of that year called a synod intended to crush the Arminians.
"Der Staatenvertrag bindet, aber er unterwirft nicht" (Gesetz and Verordnung, p. 205); or as Grotius (I.
3 Grotius put forward what has been called the Governmental Theory, viz.
His editorial labours included the publication of various works of his predecessors, and of Epistolae ecclesiasticae praestantium ac eruditorum virorum (Amsterdam, 1684), chiefly by Jakobus Arminius, Joannes Uytenbogardus, Konrad Vorstius (1569-1622), Gerhard Vossius (1577-1649), Hugo Grotius, Simon Episcopius (his grand-uncle) and Gaspar Barlaeus; they are of great value for the history of Arminianism.
Vossius, Johannes Meursius, the elder and younger Heinsius, Hugo Grotius, J.
Even in the 16th and 17th centuries scholars like Grotius and Michaelis met with violent opposition for the same cause.
The presence within half a century of the date of its foundation of such scholars as Justus Lipsius, Joseph Scaliger, Francis Gomarus, Hugo Grotius, Jacobus Arminius, Daniel Heinsius and Guardas Johannes Vossius, at once raised Leiden university to the highest European fame, a position which the learning and reputation of Jacobus Gronovius, Hermann Boerhaave, Tiberius Hem sterhuis and David Ruhnken, among others, enabled it to maintain down to the end of the 18th century.
Even Grotius, who reduced the tendencies existing in his time to a sort of orderly expression, addressed himself to the law of war as the positive part of international jurisprudence and dealt only with peace as its negative alternative.
HUGO GROTIUS (1583-1645), in his native country Huig van Groot, but known to the rest of Europe by the latinized form of the name, Dutch publicist and statesman, was born at Delft on Easter day, the 10th of April 1583.
At fifteen Grotius accompanied Count Justin of Nassau, and the grand pensionary J.
After a year spent in acquiring the language and making acquaintance with the leading men of France, Grotius returned home.
Of the Germanicus Scaliger says - "A better text than that which Grotius has given, it is impossible to give"; but it is probable that Scaliger had himself been the reviser.
Grotius vied with the Latinists of his day in the composition of Latin verses.
The choice of the states fell upon Grotius, though he was but twenty years of age, and had not offered himself for the post.
There was some talk at this time in Paris of calling Grotius to be librarian of the royal library.
Grotius had already passed from occupation with the classics to studies more immediately connected with his profession.
It has always been a question what it was that determined Grotius, when an exile in Paris in 1625, to that particular subject, and various explanations have been offered; among others a casual suggestion of Peiresc in a letter of early date.
The De jure praedae further demonstrates that Grotius was originally determined to this subject, not by any speculative intellectual interest, but by a special occasion presented by his professional engagements.
Grotius undertook to prove that Heemskirk's prize had been lawfully captured.
A short treatise which was printed in 1609, Grotius says without his permission, under the title of Mare liberum, is nothing more than a chapter - the 12th - of the De jure praedae.
Grotius maintains that the ocean is free to all nations.
It was not till many years afterwards that the jealousies between England and Holland gave importance to the novel doctrine broached in the tract by Grotius, a doctrine which Selden set himself to refute in his Mare clausum (1632).
Grotius, when he was only thirty, was made pensionary of the city of Rotterdam.
Though the mediating views in the great religious conflict between Catholic and Protestant, by which Grotius was afterwards known, had been arrived at by him by independent reflection, yet it could not but be that he would be confirmed in them by finding in England a developed school of thought of the same character already in existence.
How highly Casaubon esteemed Grotius appears from a letter of his to Daniel Heinsius, dated London, 13th of April 1613.
A form of edict drawn by Grotius was published by the states, recommending mutual toleration, and forbidding ministers in the pulpit from handling the disputed dogmas.
The states of Holland sent a commission, of which Grotius was chairman, to Utrecht, with the view of strengthening the hands of their friends, the Remonstrant party, in that city.
There were conferences in which Grotius met Prince Maurice, and taught him that Olden Barneveldt was not the only man of capacity in the ranks of the Remonstrants whom he had to fear.
On the early morning of the 31st of July the prince's coup d'etat against the liberties of Utrecht and of Holland was carried out; the civic guard was disarmed - Grotius and his colleagues saving themselves by a precipitate flight.
The grand pensionary, Olden Barneveldt, the leader of the Remonstrant party, Grotius and Hoogerbeets were arrested, brought to trial, and condemned - Olden Barneveldt to death, and Grotius to imprisonment for life and confiscation of his property.
Grotius had now before him, at thirty-six, no prospect but that of a lifelong captivity.
The ingenuity of Madame Grotius at length devised a mode of escape.
Madame Grotius, perceiving this, prevailed on her husband to allow himself to be shut up in it at the usual time.
"There are indeed," said Madame Grotius, "Arminian books in it."
The chest was carried to the house of a friend, where Grotius was released.
Grotius was now reduced to great straits.
Some little relief he got through the intervention of Etienne d'Aligre, the chancellor, who procured a royal mandate which enabled Grotius to draw, not all, but a large part of his pension.
In 1623 the president Henri de Méme lent him his château of Balagni near Senlis (dep. Oise), and there Grotius passed the spring and summer of that year.
The achievement would have been impossible, but for the fact that Grotius had with him the first draft of the work made in 1604.
Grotius hoped that his fame would soften the hostility of his foes, and that his country would recall him to her service.
Theological rancour, however, prevailed over all other sentiments, and, after fruitless attempts to re-establish himself in Holland, Grotius accepted service under Sweden, in the capacity of ambassador to France.