Between the islands of the Malay archipelago from Sumatra to New Guinea, and the neighbouring Asiatic continent, no definite relations appear ever to have existed, and no distinctly marked boundary for Asia has been established by the old geographers in this quarter.
It is usually regarded as the Chretes or Chremetes of Hanno, and the Nachyris and Bambotus of the Greeks and Romans, but it is not possible definitely to identify it with any of the rivers on Ptolemy's map. Idrisi and other medieval Arabian geographers undoubtedly refer to it.
At that period geographers regarded the Senegal as the termination of the Niger, a theory held until Mungo Park's demonstration of the eastward course of that stream.
1200, however, the Arabian geographers mention a tributary, the Tharthar, navigable in flood time, which flowed from the Jaghigagh branch of the Khabur, a tributary of the Euphrates, to the Tigris.
The interior of the continent west of 135° and north of the Musgrave ranges is usually termed by geographers the Australian Steppes.
After voyaging westward for nearly three weeks, Cook, on the 19th of April 1770, sighted the eastern coast of Australia at a point which he named after his lieutenant, who discovered it, Point Hicks, and which modern geographers identify with Cape Everard.
This continued to be the opinion of geographers until 1798, when Bass discovered the strait which bears his name.
European geographers have been accustomed to divide the islands into three groups for purposes of nomenclature, calling the northern group the Parry Islands, the central the Beechey Islands and the southern the Coffin or Bailey Islands.
It is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until the middle of the 6th century, when it was captured by Totila after a long siege.
Ancient geographers appear to have generally regarded the remarkable headland which descends from the Maritime Alps to the sea between Nice and Monaco as the limit of Italy in that direction, and in a purely geographical point of view it is probably the best point that could be selected.
No such line of separation exists farther south, and the terms Central and Southern Italy, though in general use among geographers and convenient for descriptive purposes, do not correspond to any natural divisions.
Such terms as hydrophytes, xerophytes, and halophytes had been used by plant geographers before Warmings time e.g., by Schouw;4 and the terms evidently supply a want felt by botanists as they have come into general use.
While the theory of the sphere was being elaborated the efforts of practical geographers were steadily directed towards ascertaining the outline and configuration of the oekumene, or habitable world, the only portion of the terrestrial surface known to the ancients and to the medieval peoples, and still retaining a shadow of its old monopoly of geographical attention in its modern name of the "Old World."
He divides geography into The Spherical Part, or that for the study of which mathematics alone is required, and The Topical Part, or the description of the physical relations of parts of the earth's surface, preferring this division to that favoured by the ancient geographers - into general and special.
The absurd attempt was, and sometimes is still, made by geographers to include all natural science in geography; but it is more common for specialists in the various detailed sciences to think, and sometimes to assert, that the ground of physical geography is now fully occupied by these sciences.
The Greco-Persian wars had made the remoter parts of Asia Minor more than a name to the Greek geographers before the time of Alexander the Great, but the campaigns of that conqueror from 329 to 325 B.C. opened up the greater Asia to the knowledge of Europe.
The works of the ancient Greek geographers were translated into Arabic, and starting with a sound basis of theoretical knowledge, exploration once more made progress.
While Arab learning flourished during the darkest ages of European ignorance, the last of the Arab geographers lived to see the dawn of the great period of the European awakening.
Wagner's year-book, Geographische Jahrbuch, published at Gotha, is the best systematic record of the progress of geography in all departments; and Haack's Geografihen Kalender, also published annually at Gotha, gives complete lists of the geographical societies and geographers of the world.
The geographers who have hitherto given most attention to the forms of the land have been trained as geologists, and consequently there is a general tendency to make origin or structure the basis of classification rather than form alone.
Some geographers distinguish a mountain from a hill by origin; thus Professor Seeley says " a mountain implies elevation and a hill implies denudation, but the external forms of both are often identical."
The sum of the organic life on the globe is termed by some geographers the biosphere, and it has.
Its time of greatest prosperity and importance was the period of the Abbasid caliphate, and Arabic geographers as late as A.D.
Under the Arabs the old designation again prevailed and the Euphrates is always described by the Arabian geographers as the river which flows direct to Kufa, while the present stream, passing along the ruins of Babylon to Hillah and Diwanieh, has been universally known as the Nahr Sura.
Occidental geographers, however, have followed the Greek use, and so to-day we call the river of Babylon or Nahr Sura the Euphrates and the older westerly channel the Hindieh canal.
Some of the earliest Greek geographers divided their known world into two portions only, Europe and Asia, in which last Libya (the Greek name for Africa) was included.
In these professional labours the Indian surveyors have been assisted by such scientific geographers as General Sir A.
In the restoration of the outlines of ancient and medieval geography in Asia Sven Hedin's discoveries of the actual remains of cities which have long been buried under the advancing waves of sand in the Takla Makan desert, cities which flourished in the comparatively recent period of Buddhist ascendancy in High Asia, is of the very highest interest, filling up a blank in the identification of sites mentioned by early geographers and illustrating more fully the course of old pilgrim routes.
This depression is supposed to be a relic of the former post-Pliocene connexion between the Black Sea and the Caspian, and is accepted by most geographers as the natural frontier between Europe and Asia, while others make the dividing-line coincide with the principal water-parting of the Caucasus mountain system.
His colleague, Vieillot, brought out in 1805 a Histoire naturelle des plus beaux chanteurs de la Zone Torride with figures by Langlois of tropical finches, grosbeaks, buntings and other hard-billed birds; and in 1807 two volumes of a Histoire' naturelle des oiseaux de l'Amenique septentrionale, without, however, paying much attention to the limits commonly assigned by geographers to' that part of the world.
Arab geographers and travellers of the middle ages speak in high terms of the gardens of Nisibis, and the magnificent returns obtained by the agriculturist.
It was known to Ptolemy and the Arabian geographers, and was at one time supposed to be a mouth of the Nile, and, later (18th century), a branch of the Niger.
29 a other geographers, attracted Varenius to geography.
Among later geographers d'Anville and A.
"Great" circles may also be defined as circles on a sphere which pass through the extremities of a diameter; they are familiar as the meridians or lines of longitude of geographers; lines of latitude are "small circles."
Many of these names are found on the inscriptions or in the Arabic geographers - Sheba (Saba'), Hazarmaveth (Hadramut), Abimael (Abime`athtar), Jobab (Yuhaibib, according to Halevy), Jerah (Warah of the geographers), Joktan (Arab Qahtan; wagata=gahata).
South-west of Ma'in, on the west of the mountain range and commanding the road from San'a to the north, lies Baraqish, anciently Yathil, which the inscriptions and Arabic geographers always mention with Main.
Of Mauretania with the accounts of coasting voyages by Nearchus and other geographers, and circulated by him under the name of Onesicritus, was largely used by Pliny.
The Ionian geographers looked on the circular disk of the habitable world as surrounded by a mighty stream named Oceanus, the name of the primeval god, father of gods and men, and thus the bond of union between heaven and earth.
The latter view prevailed and was as a rule held by the Arab geographers of the middle ages, so that until the discovery of America and of the Pacific Ocean the belief was general that the land surface was greater than the water surface, or that at least the two were equal, as Mercator and Varenius held.
Although put forward by the highest international authority recognized by geographers the system of nomenclature has not been adopted universally.
It was of little importance, and is only mentioned by geographers and in inscriptions.