A fungus which may carelessly be mistaken for the mushroom is M.
Grapes attacked by the fungus; the fruit becomes black, hard and shrivelled.
The fungus assails all the green parts of the vine, and injures the leaves and young shoots as much as it does the grape itself.
Oranges and pears are seriously damaged by insect and fungus pests.
They are branches in which a perennial Fungus (Aecidium, Exoascus, &c.) has obtained a hold.
An allied fungus peculiar to woods, with a less fleshy cap than the true mushroom, with hollow stem, and strong odour, has been described as a close ally of the pasture mushroom under the name of A.
Amadou is prepared on the continent of Europe, chiefly in Germany, but the fungus is a native of Britain.
Aphidesand may be easily penetrated by certain Fungi such as Peziza, Nectria; and when thus attacked, the repeated conflicts between the cambium and callus, on the one hand, trying to heal over the wound, and the insect or Fungus, on the other, destroying the new tissues as they are formed, results in irregular growths; the still uninjured cambium area goes on thickening the branch, the dead parts, of course, remain unthickened, and the portion in which the Fungus is at work may for the time being grow more rapidly.
Perithecium or "fruit" of the fungus with its curled appendages, X too.
Every time a carpenter saws fresh timber with a saw recently put through wood attacked with dry-rot, he risks infecting it with the Fungus; and similarly in pruning, in propagating by cuttings, &c.
Fungus-galls on leaves and stems are exemplified by the pocket-plums caused by the Exoasceae, the black blistering swellings of Ustilago Maydis, the yellow swellings on nettles due to Aecidium, &c.
In Australia Tryon published a work on the Insect and Fungus Enemies of Queensland in 1889.
This fungus, Marasmius Oreades, is more universally used in France and Italy than in England, although it is well known and frequently used both in a fresh and in a dry state in England.
To this character the fungus owes its generic name (Marasmius) as well as one of its most valuable qualities for the table, for examples may be gathered from June to November, and if carefully dried may be hung on strings for culinary purposes and preserved without deterioration for several years; indeed, many persons assert that the rich flavour of these fungi increases with years.
The fungus is cut into slices and then steeped in a solution of nitre.
Each species of green plant may form a mycorhiza with two or three different Fungi, and a single species of Fungus may enter into symbiosis with several green plants.
The application of ordinary antiseptic powders to leaves inside which a Fungus, such as a Uredo or Ustilago, is growing can only result in failtire, and similarly if tobacco fumes, for instance, are applied when the insects concerned are hibernating in the ground beneath.
AMADOU, a soft tough substance used as tinder, derived from Polyporus fomentarius, a fungus belonging to the group Basidiomycetes and somewhat resembling a mushroom in manner of growth.
The relations of the Alga and the Fungus, which have formed a close associationship in the structure known as the Lichen, were established many years ago.
For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
A plant may be diseased as a whole, because nearly all its tissues are in a morbid or pathological condition, owing to some Fungus pervading the wholee.g.
In order that a Fungus may enter a plant, it must be able to overcome not merely the resistance of cell-walls, but that of the living protoplasm; if it cannot do this, it must remain outside as a mere epiphyte, e.g.
In the Algae, such as Fucus, Volvox, Oedogonium, Bulbochaete, and in the Fungus Monoblepharis, the spermatozoid is a small oval or elongate cell containing nucleus, cytoplasm and sometimes plastids.
This stage in the life-history was formerly regarded as a distinct fungus with the name Roestelia cancellata; it is now known, however, that the spores germinate on young juniper leaves, in which they give rise to this other stage in the plant's history known as Gymnosporangium.
They are beautiful objects in the autumn woods; Amanita muscaria, the fly fungus, formerly known as Agaricus muscarius, being especially remarkable by its bright red cap covered with white warts.
The complete life-history of this form is at present unknown; and information as to where the fungus passes the winter, and in what form, would probably afford some useful indications as to the method that should be adopted to combat the disease.
A similar disease which of late has frequently been found in England, and which is ascribed to the fungus Gloeosporium ampelophagum, is very similar to it.
Velutinus, a slender, ringless, hollow-stemmed, blackgilled fungus, common in gardens and about dung and stumps; it is about the size of a mushroom, but thinner in all its parts and far more brittle; it has a black hairy fringe hanging round the edge of the cap when fresh.
In other cases the Fungus is virulent and rampant, and, instead of a local effect, exerts a general destructive action throughout the plant-e.g.
Experience with epidemics, dearly bought in the past, has shown that one fruitful cause is the laying open to the inroads of some Fungus or insect, hitherto leading a quiet endemic life in the fields and forests, large tracts of its special food, along which it may range rampant without check to its dispersal, nutrition and reproduction.
Moller - serves as the substratum for a special fungus (Rozites gongylophora), the staple food of the ants.
Mould and bacterial growths, and causing the appearance, on the surface of their " mushroom garden," of numerous small white bodies formed by swollen ends of the fungus hyphae.
When the fungus is grown elsewhere than in the ants' nest it produces gonidia instead of the white masses on which the ants feed, hence it seems that these masses are indeed produced as the result of some unknown cultural process.
Pear scab is caused by a parasitic fungus, Fusicladium pyrinum, very closely allied and perhaps merely a form of the apple scab fungus, F.
The fungus mycelium grows between the cuticle and the epidermis, the former being ultimately ruptured by numerous short branches bearing spores (conidia) by means of which the disease is spread.
In " Root rot," as the name implies, the roots are attacked, the fungus being a species of Ozonium, which envelops the roots in a white covering of mould or mycelium.
" Boll rot," or "Anthracnose," is a disease which may at times be sufficiently serious to destroy from ro to 50% of the crop. The fungus which causes it (Colletotrichum gossypii) is closely related to one of the fungi attacking sugar-cane in various parts of the world.
A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.
The most serious trouble has been occasioned in the Malay States by a white thread-like fungus (Fomes semitostus) which attacks the roots of the Hevea tree and eventually kills it.
The development of this fungus is greatly promoted by the presence of decaying stumps and wood in the plantation.
In the disease of the scalp called favus, Schonlein had discovered a minute mycelial fungus; a remarkable discovery, for it was the first conspicuous step in the attribution of diseases to the action of minute parasites.
The mildew is in its turn attacked by a fungus of the same tribe, Cicinnobolus Cesatii, which lives parasitically within the hyphae of its host, and at times even succeeds in destroying it.
Another fungus which at tacks vines, especially those of America, is Plasmopara viticola, which has also been introduced from America to Europe.
Fructification of the fungus, entire and in section; the latter shows the asci containing ascospores, much enlarged.
When all these characters are taken together no other mushroom-like fungus - and nearly a thousand species grow in Britain - can be confounded with it.
Sometimes a beautiful, somewhat slender, fungus peculiar to stumps in woods is mistaken for the mushroom in A.
The mushroom is a semi-deliquescent fungus which rapidly falls into putridity in decay, whilst the champignon dries up into a leathery substance in the sun, but speedily revives and takes its original form again after the first shower.
The fungus seems to do better when supplied with compounds of ammonia.
But even when inside it does not follow that the Fungus can kill the cell, and many cases are known where the Fungus can break throtigh the cells first lines of defence (cell-wall and protoplasmic lining); but the struggle goes on at close quarters, and various degrees of hypertrophy, accumulation of plastic bodies or secretions, discolorations, &c.,, indicate the suffering of the still living cell.
In the Fungi it is usually composed of a modified form of cellulose known as fungus cellulose, which, according to Mangin, consists of callose in combination either with cellulose or pectic compounds.
Carbolic acid is an efficient parasiticide, and is largely used in destroying the fungus of ringworm and of the skin disease known as pityriasis versicolor.
The insects cultivate their fungus, weeding out.
Portion of the mycelium of the fungus bearing spores (conidia), s, on erect branches, X250.
Throughout this time, Borlaug constantly battled wheat's arch-nemesis: rust, a fungus that feeds on wheat, oats, and barley.