Girault, Principes de cot onisation et de ligislation coloniele (3 vols., Paris, 1907-1908); Les Colonies franchises, an encyclopaedia edited by M.
He established the freedom of the instrumentalities of the national government from adverse legislation by the states; freedom of commerce between the different states; the right of Congress to regulate the entire passenger traffic through and from the United States, and the sacredness of public franchises from legislative assault.
His name, and that of his wife Geloria (Elvira), are associated with the grant of the first franchises of Leon.
The Venetians, however, maintained their position in Palestine; and their quarters remained, along with those of the Genoese, as privileged commercial franchises in an otherwise feudal state.
Railway, street railway, telegraph and telephone franchises can be granted only by the Executive Council with the approval of the governor, and none can be operative until it has been approved by the President of the United States.
The governor and Executive Council have the exclusive right to grant all other franchises of a public or quasi-public nature and Congress reserves the right to annul or modify any such grant.
In 1189 a charter granting Hamburg considerable franchises, including exemption from tolls, a separate court and jurisdiction, and the rights of fishery on the Elbe from the city to the sea.
The burgesses of Droitwich are mentioned in the Domesday Survey, but they probably only had certain franchises in connexion with the salt trade.
One of the first motions put to the House was that a special Committee should be appointed to consider the violations of the liberties and franchises of all the corporations of the kingdom " and particularly of the City of London."
The committee's opinion on these two points (among others) was endorsed by the House and on the 16th of March it ordered a Bill to be brought in to restore all corporations to the state and condition they were in on the 29th of May 1660, and to confirm the liberties and franchises which at that time they respectively held and enjoyed.'
After petition signed by a number of voters not less than 25% of the number voting at the preceding municipal election, any member of the council may be removed by popular vote, to which all public franchises must be submitted, and by which the council may be compelled to pass any law or ordinance.
The taxing system of Iowa embraces a general property tax, corporation taxes (imposed on the franchises or on either the capital stock or the stock in the hands of shareholders), taxes on certain businesses and a collateral inheritance tax.
The towns had municipal franchises, exercised by a governing body comprised of Spaniards, either immigrants from Old Spain, or Creoles, i.e.
In 1866 he expressed himself favourable to the making of household suffrage the basis of representation, an expression of opinion which probably influenced the Reform Bill of the following year - in the discussions on which Palmer took a prominent part, and especially in opposition to the so-called "fancy franchises" originally proposed by its authors.
One of that bishop's successors, Adhemar Fabri (1385-1388) codified and confirmed all the franchises, rights and privileges of the citizens (1387), this grant being the Magna Carta of the city of Geneva.
In England the franchises enjoyed by burgesses, freemen and other consuetudinary constituencies in burghs, were dependent on the character of the burgagetenure.
The state makes provision for revenue for school purposes as follows: (1) the interest on the Bond of the Commonwealth for $1,327,000 00; (2) dividends on 798 shares of the capital stock of the Bank of Kentucky - representing a par value of $79,800.00; (3) the interest at 6% on the Bond of the Commonwealth for $381,986.08, which is a perpetual obligation in favour of the several counties; (4) the interest at 6% on $606,641.03, which was received from the United States; (5) the annual tax of 262 cents on each $100 of value of all real and personal estate and corporate franchises directed to be assessed for taxation; (6) a certain portion of fines, forfeitures and licences realized by the state; and (7) a portion of the dog taxes of each county.
Matters of a local or special nature, such as bills for chartering and incorporating gas, water, canal, tramway, railway or telephone companies, or for conferring franchises in the nature of monopolies or special privileges upon such companies, or for altering their constitutions, as also for incorporating cities or minor communities and regulating their affairs.
The great public service corporations have, in particular, frequentiy succeeded in obtaining franchises of large pecuniary value without making any adequate payment therefor.
In New YOrk City, where the council had lost public confidence, and in some other places, the only important power still possessed by the council is that of granting franchises to street railways, gas companies and the like.
Originally franchises varied much in different states, but for many years prior to 1890 what was practically manhood suffrage prevailed in nearly all of.
Finally, the strain upon municipal finances incident to a realization of civic improvements has called attention to intangible wealth: street railways are no longer taxed as scrap iron but as working systems, with due attention to their franchises; and there is a beginning of the doctrine that the increase in value of unimproved realty constitutes income that should be taxed.
He advocated trial by jury in press prosecutions, the extension of municipal franchises and other liberal measures.
The charter provides for a referendum vote on franchises, which may be ordered by the council or by petition of the people, the signatures of 20% of the registered voters being sufficient to force such election.
Feudalism was not yet dead, and in the north and west there were medieval franchises in which the royal writ and common law hardly ran at all.
It was necessary for the future development of England that its governmental system should be centralized and unified, that the authority of the monarchy should be more firmly extended over Wales and the western and northern borders, and that the still existing feudal franchises should be crushed; and these objects were worth the price paid in the methods of the Star Chamber and of the Councils of the North and of Wales.
The constitution declares that the state's rights of eminent domain shall never be so abridged as to prevent the legislature from taking the property and franchises of incorporated companies and subjecting them to the public necessity in a way similar to the treatment of individuals.
But in 1902 and 1903 the Philippine government, as established in 1902 by an act of the Congress of the United States, granted franchises for the extension of the Manila-Dagupan railway to Cabanatuan (55 m.) and to Antipolo (24 m.).
The local monarchy of the manorial lords was fast giving way to a central power which maintained its laws, the circuits of its judges, the fiscal claims of its exchequer, the police interference of its civil officers all through the country, and, by prevailing over the franchises of manorial lords, gave shape to a vast dominion of legal equality and legal protection, in which the forces of commercial exchange, of contract, of social intercourse, found a ready and welcome sphere of action.
The wide contrast between his German and Italian rule is strikingly exemplified in the fact that, while he endeavoured to overthrow the republics in Italy, he held in check the power of the nobles in Germany, by conferring municipal franchises and independent rights on the principal cities.
Confirmed to them all the franchises and customs which they had in the time of Henry I.
Questions of railways, of franchises, union scales and the recognition of the union in contracts, questions of sheep and cattle interests, politics, civic, legal and industrial questions, all entered into the economic troubles of these years.
Closely akin are the payments demanded for privileges to industrial undertakings given as " franchises," very often in connexion with monopolies, e.g.
Under the revision of 1908 corporate franchises cannot be granted for a longer term than thirty years.
In 1884 the state gained the victory by securing the passage of a law taxing the franchises of railway corporations.
1874), then a Republican member of the Assembly and in1906-1908a state senator, began in 1904; it did much to secure the passage of acts limiting public service franchises to 20 years (unless extended to 40 years by the voters of the municipality concerned), the increase of taxes on railways, the increase of franchise tax rates by 12% each year up to 5%, the adoption of direct primary elections, and the modification of the existing promoters' liability law.
But the county includes all other places, such as liberties and franchises, which before 1888 were exempt from contribution to county rate.
But before leaving the consideration of the area of the county it may be added that all liberties and franchises are now merged in the county and subject to the jurisdiction of the county council.
The chief sources of the state's revenue are a general property tax and taxes on the franchises of corporations, especially those of railway and insurance companies and savings banks; among the smaller sources are licences or fees, a poll tax, and a collateral inheritance tax.
They create and alter subdivisions, levy taxes, care for the poor, construct, maintain and make regulations for roads and bridges, erect and care for public buildings, grant franchises, issue licences, supervise county officers, make and enforce proper police regulations (but the authority does not extend to incorporated towns or cities), and perform such other duties as may be authorized by law.
1 And the same author distinguishes a forest, as "the highest franchise of princely pleasure," from the inferior franchises of chase, park and warren - named in the order of their importance.
In 1278 followed the Statute of Gloucester, an act empowering the king to make inquiry as to the right by which old royal estates, or exceptional franchises which infringed on the royal prerogative of justice or taxation, had passed into the hands of their present owners.
They showed signs of an intention to make open resistance; but to their surprise the king contented himself with making complete lists of all franchises then existing, and did no more; this being his method of preventing the growth of any further trespasses on his prerogative.
For the next two centuries and a half the lands west of Dee and Wye were divided between the new counties, forming the principality of Wales, and the marches where the old feudal franchises continued, till the marcher-lordships gradually fell by forfeiture or marriage to the crown.
Some lords of manors and of hundreds held a court of their own for view of frankpledge, and in the 13th century it may be fairly said "of all the franchises, the royal rights in private hands, view of frankpledge is perhaps the commonest."
The duration of franchises given by the city is limited to 20 years.
Undermined as far as he could the right of control by the states-general, the right of remonstrance by the parlements, and the communal franchises, while ensuring the impoverishment of the municipalities by his fiscal methods.
He fully confirmed the right of the nobles to trial by law and security against arbitrary punishment; he left the franchises of the city untouched, and respected the independence of the justiza.
But the Conservatives preferred to support the late kings brother Don Carlos, and they had the active aid of the Basques, who feared for their local franchises, and of the mountaineers of Navarre, Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia, who were either quite clerical, or who had become attached, during the French invasion and the troubles of the reign of Ferdinand, to a life of guerrillero adventure.