Reproduction by budding does not occur, although spontaneous fragmentation of the body, followed by complete regeneration of each of the pieces, is known to take place.
In some filamentous forms this " fragmentation " into multicellular pieces of equal length or nearly so is a normal phenomenon, each partial filament repeat s ing the growth, division and q?
These associations of individuals can hardly be the result of the metamorphosis of a corresponding number of larvae, but are probably due to a spontaneous fragmentation of the adult animals, each such fragment developing into a complete Phoronis (De Selys-Longchamps).
- Fragmentation of the nucleus.
There are three methods of reproduction of the lichen: by fragmentation, by soredia, by the formation of fungal spores.