There are three methods of reproduction of the lichen: by fragmentation, by soredia, by the formation of fungal spores.
In some filamentous forms this " fragmentation " into multicellular pieces of equal length or nearly so is a normal phenomenon, each partial filament repeat s ing the growth, division and q?
These associations of individuals can hardly be the result of the metamorphosis of a corresponding number of larvae, but are probably due to a spontaneous fragmentation of the adult animals, each such fragment developing into a complete Phoronis (De Selys-Longchamps).
Reproduction by budding does not occur, although spontaneous fragmentation of the body, followed by complete regeneration of each of the pieces, is known to take place.
- Fragmentation of the nucleus.