The measures by which the government of India chiefly endeavours to reduce the liability of the country to famine are the promotion of railways; the extension of canal and well irrigation; the reclamation of waste lands, with the establishment of fuel and fodder reserves; the introduction of agricultural improvements; the multiplication of industries; emigration; and finally the improvement where necessary of the revenue and rent systems. In times of famine the function of the railways in distributing the grain is just as important as the function of the irrigation-canals in increasing the amount grown.
Besides the use of the straw when cut up and mixed with other food for fodder, the oat grain constitutes an important food for both man and beast.
The young shoots are also given to oxen in the long winters of those northern latitudes, when other green fodder is hard to obtain.
It is the leguminous fodder crops-especially clover, which has a much more extended period of growth, and much wider range of collection within the soil and subsoil, than any of the other crops of the rotation-that yield in their produce the largest amount of nitrogen per acre.
The outgoing must leave for the incoming tenant convenient housing and other facilities for the labours of the year following; the incoming must procure for the outgoing tenant conveniences for the consumption of his fodder and for the harvests remaining to be got in.
If they fall on pasture land or fodder of any kind and are eaten by any herbivorous animal, such as a hare, rabbit, horse, sheep or ox, the active embryos or larvae are set free in the alimentary canal of the new host.
The young shoots of the larch are sometimes given in Switzerland as fodder to cattle.
The list consists of oxen, sheep, geese, hens, honey, ale, loaves, cheese, butter, fodder, salmon and eels.
The bunts and smuts which damage our grain and fodder plants comprise about 400 species of internal parasites, found in all countries on herbaceous plants, and especially on Monocotyledons.
In 1906 the commerce of the port, chiefly in lumber, cement, coal, cedar posts and ties, fodder and general merchandise, was valued at $3,018,894.
The amount of forage that may be produced in this way is enormous; 50,000 to 80,000 lb of green fodder are grown per acre, which makes 8000 to 12,000 lb as field-cured.
Roughly about 48.5% of the total cultivated area is under cereals, 33.8 under fodder plants, 5.8 under root-crops, and 11.
In agriculture the word has an extended signification to include the various fodder-plants, chiefly leguminous, often called " artificial grasses."
The extent to which the annual production of the leading fodder crop may vary is shown in the table by the two consecutive years 1893 and 1894; from only nine million tons in the former year the production rose to upwards of fifteen million tons in the latter, an increase of over 70%.
The Swedish army now began to suffer severely, bread and fodder running short, and the soldiers subsisting entirely on captured bullocks.
The meal, in fact, is so rich in protein that it is best utilized as a food for animals when mixed with some coarse fodder, thus furnishing a more evenly-balanced ration.
Daily and only require water every third or fourth day: in cool weather, with ample green fodder they can go twentyfive days or more without drinking.
Temples that had been wellnigh deserted were already beginning to be frequented, rites long intermitted were being renewed, and the trade in fodder for sacrificial victims was reviving.
The principal fodder crops are green barley and a tall clover called " sulla " (Hedysarum coronarum), having a beautiful purple blossom.
The production of fodder also declined steadily, the number of cattle fell, and the army horses were insufficiently fed.
Throughout other parts bullocks are fed on pasture land, and also in stables on nourishing and succulent feed such as hay, Indian corn fodder, Indian corn silage, turnips, carrots, mangels, ground oats, barley, peas, Indian corn, rye, bran and linseed oil cake.
Slaughtering notably free from epizootic diseases, with a fertile D soil or the growth of fodder crops and pasture, with abundance of pure air and water, and with a plentiful supply of ice, the conditions in Canada are ideal for the dairying industry.
Its culms and leaves afford excellent fodder for cattle; and the grain, of which the yield in favourable situations is upwards of a hundredfold, is used for the same purposes as maize, rice, corn and other cereals.
The extensive cultivation of beetroot, of potatoes for distilleries, and of fodder crops has led to the introduction of a rotation of several years instead of the former " three-fields " system; and agricultural machinery is in more general use, especially on the larger estates of the west.
In tropical or subtropical countries for their grain or as fodder grasses, or both, each variety of soil, from swamp to desert, having its characteristic forms.
In fact such pastures are essential to the inhabitants of pastoral alpine districts, for the fodder to be obtained in the valley itself would not suffice to support the number of cattle which are required to afford sustenance to the inhabitants.
Some hold the view that maize originated from a common Mexican fodder grass, Euchlaena mexicana, known as Teosinte, a closely allied plant which when crossed with maize yields a maize-like hybrid.
It is also largely used for fodder and is an important article of export.
Lucerne and a trefoil called shaftal form important fodder crops in the western parts of the country, and, when irrigated, are said to afford ten or twelve cuttings in the season.
It is common to cut down the green wheat and barley before the ear forms, for fodder, and the repetition of this, with barley at least, is said not to injure the grain crop. Bellew gives the following statement of the manner in which the soil is sometimes worked in the Kandahar district: - Barley is sown in November; in March and April it is twice cut for fodder; in June the grain is reaped, the ground is ploughed and manured and sown with tobacco, which yields two cuttings.
The fodder famines that accompanied the great famines of 1897 and 1900 proved little short of disastrous to the cattle in the affected provinces.
Cereals constitute the principal object of cultivation, and among these wheat ranks first, the next in imoortance beine barley, the chief fodder of horses and mules.
Grazing and fodder are not wanting, and besides the reeds peculiar to Seistan there are two grasses which merit notice - that called bannu, with which the bed of the Hamun abounds on the south and the taller and less salt kirta on the higher ground.
The hay crop of 1899 was grown on 1,095,706 acres and amounted to 1,617,905 tons, but nearly one-half of this was made from wild grasses; since then the amounts of fodder obtained from alfalfa, Kafir corn, sorghum cane and timothy have much increased, and that obtained from wild grasses has decreased; in 1909 the acreage was 900,000 and the crop 810,000 tons.
Phleum has a cylindrical spike-like inflorescence; P. pratense (timothy) is a valuable fodder grass, as also is Alopecurus pratensis (foxtail).
Koeleria cristata is a fodder-grass.
Glyceria fluitans, manna-grass, socalled from the sweet grain, is one of the best fodder grasses for swampy meadows; the grain is an article of food in central Europe.
Dactyloides (gama grass) extends northwards to Illinois and Connecticut; it is used for fodder and as an ornamental plant.
Theophrastus says the leaves are sweet and used for fodder for most kinds of cattle.
On the Karroo are numerous ostrich farms. Lucerne is very largely grown as fodder for the cattle.
Their only hope lies in the introduction of fodder crops as a regular stage in the agricultural course.
In these forests every reasonable facility is afforded to the people concerned for the full and easy satisfaction of their needs, which are generally for small timber for building or fuel, fodder and grazing for their cattle, and edible products for themselves; and considerations of forest income are subordinated to those purposes.